Presentation on theme: "Cloud Covered Southeast Asia: Next SAR Sensors Generation; Value, Application and Opportunity. Shahrizal Ide b. Moslin Space Application and Technology."— Presentation transcript:
Cloud Covered Southeast Asia: Next SAR Sensors Generation; Value, Application and Opportunity. Shahrizal Ide b. Moslin Space Application and Technology Development Division Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA)
Motivation behind SAR mission Civilian user point of view - Day and night capability - All weather capability - Penetration of EM waves - High resolution 8
9 Clouds ?
10 Clouds ?
RazakSat image statistics 11 Total Image Downloaded to date 25 March 2010 (Scenes) Catalog Image * (Scenes) Image Over Malaysia (Scenes) Image Outside Malaysia (Scenes) 1300 (All over the world) South East Asia = 424 Africa = 53 S. America = 47 Total = 524 Scene size : 20km X 20km Analysis based on image scene received by GRS in Temerloh Catalogue image is less than downloaded image is due to IRPS system is not operational to generate catalogue from 26 Oct until 30 Nov Total image is expected to be within 824 ~ 1300.
12 Obervations on Malaysia = 300 Scene No.DetailsObservations on Malaysia 1.Number of images, cloud cover LESS THAN 75% 32 2.Number of images, cloud cover LESS THAN 75% and time of observation within 10 am – 2 pm 19 RazakSat image statistics
13 RazakSat image
Optical vs. SAR 14 CharacteristicsOpticalSAR Wavelength (λ)Order of μmOrder of cm AvailabilityLimited by the atmospheric conditions (mostly by cloud) Functional in all weather conditions Passive/activePassive systemActive system Orbit characteristics Mostly sun-synchronous orbits (midday and midnight) Mostly sun-synchronous (dawn and dusk) Image characteristics - Panchromatic/coloured images - Shows sun shadows on image - Maximum elevation angle: less than 60 degrees - Data are processed to be a coloured image - No real shadows. Shadows on image are the absence of data (no echo sensed by payload) - Not sensitive to antenna/satellite attitude Ground penetration Unable to penetrateDepending on the humidity and moisture of ground High resolution payload Payload need to have large optical lens or focal length Payload need more power from the spacecraft
What the people needs from EO 15 RequirementDescription Coverage How much of the globe the EO system must cover Persistence How often images of a particular location are updated Resolution How large the smallest detected object must be Image Type The type of images required for the application Command / Operations All images are updated continuously or only on command
Problems of using EO data in Malaysia 16 Problem Type Government sector Private sector UniversityTotalPercentage High data cost % Unable to process EO data % Cloud cover % Outdated image % Costly HW and SW % Low spatial resolution % Laporan Kajiselidik Keperluan Pengguna Data Satelit Remote Sensing Di Malaysia 2011, Agensi Remote Sensing Malaysia
Preference of satellite data of Malaysians 17 Laporan Kajiselidik Keperluan Pengguna Data Satelit Remote Sensing Di Malaysia 2011, Agensi Remote Sensing Malaysia
Application trend for EO users in Malaysia 18 Laporan Kajiselidik Keperluan Pengguna Data Satelit Remote Sensing Di Malaysia 2011, Agensi Remote Sensing Malaysia
The Next Space-based SAR Sensors Generation L-band SAR JAXA : ALOS-2, L-band SAR sensor allowing to get a resolution of 1 m using Spotlight mode INPE (Brazilian National Institute for Space and Research) is proposing an L-band SAR on the SSR-2 Mission with 3 m resolution and 20 km swath. The Argentinian National Space Activities Commission (CONAE) is developing the SAOCOM X-band SAR ASI (Italy) : COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation using X-band SAR (resolution <1m) Spain : SAR satellite called Paz. The Paz SAR instrument; less than 1 m resolution. The Russian : Advance SAR. The Advance SAR instrument will be embarked on board of the Meteor-MP-N1 Mission of ROSKOSMOS (the Russian Federal Space Agency). The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI): KOMPSAT-5 Mission (1 meter) ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is proposing a C/X SAR instrument on DMSAR Mission. C-band SAR ESA: the Sentinel-1 programme (5 meter resolution) Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) composed of 3 satellites using a SAR instrument operating in C-band 19
Global EO Market Northern Sky Research (NSR) forecasts, the Global EO market will grow at an average rate of 6.9% a year, and is expected to nearly double from a $3.4B industry in 2009 to a $6.2B industry in
Market drivers for EO Availability of EO Data: The number of EO (passive and active)satellites over the past decade has increased significantly. Affordability of EO data: The cost of remote sensing satellites has dramatically decreased in the past few years Government Demand for EO data: Government demands for societal applications of Earth Observation products and services are best met through satellite imagery. Commercial Demand for location based information services: the synergy that has been achieved through the combination of satellite imagery, mobile telecommunications, navigation information and software processing. Virtual globes (ie Google Earth, Microsoft Live Earth, etc.) Political and Social Factors: Strong political will and bold decisions have been taken by policy makers to relax the regulatory environment for EO data images. 21
EO trends in the future Technology: With the emergence of smaller and less expensive satellites. Value Added Service: The growing trend of seamless integration of EO imagery with GIS, navigation and other telecommunication technology has enhanced the ubiquity of imagery data. Availability: Wide availability of free data, products and services provided by government satellites and enterprises such as Google, has increased the use of EO data by the general public. Regulation: Export control issues (ITAR) have had a negative impact on the market, but they have also helped to expand the market place. Market Players: As the number of players in the EO industry grows, it is expected that competitiveness will result in the emergence of many new applications. Evolving Investment Strategies: Governments are moving away from the business model of investing directly in EO data collection assets, and instead, are now providing incentives to encourage commercial enterprises to invest in the EO infrastructure. Commercialisation of the EO Industry: Government agencies, the primary investors and operators of EO satellite systems, are increasingly turning to commercial companies to develop and operate EO data systems 22
Key driving requirements for EO applications 23 RequirementDescriptionRange Coverage How much of the globe the EO system must cover Entire globe to specific regions Persistence How often images of a particular location are updated Real time to once a week Resolution How large the smallest detected object must be 1m – 20 m Image Type The type of images required for the application 3D or 2D Command / Operations All images are updated continuously or only on command Continuous to On Command
Guideline for “future mission” (if it is decided to build a combined sensor ) 24 AreaGuidelines PowerLarge solar panel and batteries, simultaneous operation of both sensors not recommended Size/massLarge, complex satellite is unavoidable, mainly driven by SAR Data volumeDue to the large amount of data generated on-board Thermal controlComplex, mainly to compensate for huge temperature gradients due to midday/midnight SSO and due to heat generated by the SAR payload Attitude controlOne pass in each mode is recommended OrbitsUp to the intended target (SSO or NEqO) OperationComplex operational procedures and scheduling is unavoidable Automation of procedures is critical for the success of the solution Funding Optic –(Rapid Eye – 160M Eu), World View-2 –(297M Eu) (GeoEye – 360M Eu) SAR – (Tandem-X – 135M Eu), (SAR Lupe-500M Eu, 5 spacecraft) (Cosmo-Skymed- 1.24B Eu, 4 Spacecraft)
Concluding Remarks 1.By looking at the optical applications and emerging SAR applications, it becomes clear that both technologies are complementary, and there an interest for end users have access to the imagery products generated by both instruments. 2.Some applications such as disaster management, flooded areas, bare soil, droughts, ocean and ice surface, detection of changes in infrastructure and vegetation can be brilliantly satisfied using SAR data and they have to be promoted in such a way to be easily understood by a large user community. 3.Integration of the images is the best answer for the society to have an updated EO images for their applications. Integration done either during processing the image on ground or integration of sensor on the spacecraft.
Shahrizal Ide b. Moslin Space Application and Technology Development Division Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) Thank You !