Identify and describe the three layers of Earth. Earth can be divided into three major layers (aka ‘sphere’s). lithosphere hydrosphere atmosphere Chapter 1.1 Parts of the Earth
Objectives Describe the three main types of rocks that make up the lithosphere. Explain why fresh water is a valuable resource for organisms. Chapter 1.2 Earth’s Land & Water
Describe the three main types of rocks that make up the lithosphere. Chapter 1.2 Earth’s Land Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
Explain why fresh water is a valuable resource for organisms. Chapter 1.2 Earth’s Water Greater than 70% of surface is covered by water. HOWEVER More than 97% of the water is salt water. ADDITIONALLY Of the remaining 3% of the fresh water, 2/3 of it is locked up in glaciers and ice caps. LEAVING US... Less than 1% available for our use.
Objectives Diagram the layers of the atmosphere. Describe the characteristics of each layer. Chapter 1.3 The Air
Troposhpere Earth’s Surface Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Thickness 16-18 Km by Equator & ~10 Km near poles, Composition 78% N 2 & 21% O 2, Key Feature most of our weather occurs here. Height, above the Mesosphere and up. (debate about how far out it actually extends) Key Feature, this is the hotest layer of our atmosphere, temperatures as high as 2,000°C – however the gas molecules are extremely far apart. Height from above the Stratosphere to about 80 Km. Key Feature, this is the coldest layer of our atmosphere, temperatures as low as -100°C Height is beyond Troposphere to ~50Km, Composition ozone is found here (O 3 ), Key Features Jet stream is found here, airline travel takes advantage of.
Objectives Describe the location of the biosphere. Explain how organisms interact with the biosphere. Chapter 1.4 The Biosphere
Biosphere – all part of Earth that support life Chapter 1.4 Biosphere’s Location Extends from the tops of the highest mountains to the bottom of the deepest oceans. HOWEVER That is ONLY a thickness of about 20 Km. ADDITIONALLY Most life lives between 500 m below the ocean’s surface to 6 Km above sea level. LEAVING US... With a layer about as thick as the skin of an apple to support life.
Chapter 1.4 Biosphere’s interaction My daily processes continually interact with the h hh hydrosphere (water to drink) and the a aa atmosphere (air to breathe). And By eating I process trace elements of the lithosphere.
Gaia hypothesis offers a different way of viewing Earth: A holistic way, instead of a reductionistic way. A view of mutualism, not separationism Amazing ability of maintaining its homeostasis (30% increase in solar radiation, but the same temperature about 15C) Gaia does incorporate evolution Opinion of human beings as the weed of mammals? The cancer of Gaia Chapter 1 Gaia hypothesis
Chapter 1 Words to be familiar with Table 1 - Chapter 1 - Planet Earth Word Bank aquifers atmospherebiosphereEarth fresh waterGaia Hypothesis glaciershydrosphere ice capsigneouslithospheremesosphere metamorphicOceansOrganismssedimentary stratospheresurface water thermospheretroposphere
With pointed fangs it sits in wait, With piercing force its doles out fate, Over bloodless victims proclaiming its might, Eternally joining in a single bite. What am I? Chapter 2.1 The Nature of Science Only one color, but not one size, Stuck at the bottom, yet easily flies, Present in sun, but not in rain, Doing no harm, and feeling no pain. What am I? Objectives Explain why there is always uncertainty in science. Distinguish between subjects that can and cannot be studied scientifically. As we made guesses, (our hypothesis) we also used the additional information to modify our ideas - we kept making our hypothesis better.
Chapter 2.1 The Nature of Science (continued) Objectives Distinguish between subjects that can and cannot be studied scientifically. Simply put – to be studied scientifically, a subject must be observable and testable. Ethics and personal values cannot be studied scientifically!
Chapter 2 Skills & Methods (of Science) The order of steps in a scientific method can vary. Most scientific methods to solving a problem, however, include defining the problem, stating a hypothesis analyzing the results of the test and drawing conclusions. Objectives Describe the steps involved in conducting a scientific experiment.
Chapter 2.2 Methods of Science (Continued) Variables are factors that change in an experiment. A dependent variable can change in response to changes in the independent variable. With a control set-up, the variable being testing is missing. May we burn her ? Let’s examine BAD scientific method...
Chapter 2 Designing an Experiment OBSERVE Ask Questions Hypothesize Predict Design Experiment Gather Data Analyze Data Evaluate Hypothesize
all the non-living parts of the environment. Everything that surrounds an organism. Chapter 2.3 – Environmental Science Environment Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors All the living parts of the environment. Objectives Give examples of how parts of the environment interact. Explain why policy must balance the needs of the environment with the needs of society.
Explain why policy must balance the needs of the environment with the needs of society. Chapter 2.3 Environmental Science There Are No Second Chances. There is no other planet that we know of that harbors life like Earth. Once life on Earth is diminished beyond a certain threshold it may no longer sustain humanity.
Chapter 2 Words to be familiar with Table 2 - Chapter 2 – The Nature of Science Word Bank abioticanalyzedAsk Questions bioticControlData dependentEnvironmentEvaluate ExperimentHypothesisindependent ObservePredictionvariable
3.1 The Changing Environment Describe ways in which the three layers of the biosphere have changed over time. Chapter 3 - Change in the Biosphere
Chapter 3.1 – The Changing Environment Humans have only been around a short time, only appearing 30 seconds before midnight. 6:00 AM 12:00 Noon 6:00 PM 12:00 Midnight Earth’s age ~ 4.5 billion years, Humans have only been around for ~ ½ million years.
Chapter 3 – The Changing Environment Continual Change includes: LITHOSPHERE Weathering i s the continual process of breaking down rocks & Erosion i s the process whereby that material is carried off. T he main agents for both is H 2 O
HYDROSPHERE Ice Ages Cooling of the Earth’s climate is associated with periods of glaciation. These glaciers are responsible for major geographical features: Cape Cod, Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes in NY El Nino nutrient-poor warm water lasting longer than usual which leads to death of fish (economic impact) Chapter 3 – Continual Change includes:
ATMOSPHERE Atmospheric Changes Approximately 1 billion years after plants first evolved photosynthesis – the first discernable amounts of O 2 were found. The gas that most contributes to the greenhouse effect is CO 2. Stromatalites – a bacteria (shown here) are believed to have been the first life that began on the shores of ancient oceans.
Objectives List factors that affect an area’s ability to support life. Predict how changes in the environment might affect organisms. Chapter 3.2 – Needs of Organisms
Chapter 3.2 – Survival Ways organisms deal with extreme climates include: Hibernation: Slow breathing Lower body temperature Slow heart rate Plants: May lie dormant (in seed form) for years Warm-blooded: Wider range of tolerance, but requires greater energy Cold-blooded: Gain heat from sun
Chapter 3.2 – Needs of Organisms Needs include: Nutrients Provide: Energy Aids biochemical reactions Build up tissues w/ in bodies Their territory p rovides water, food and a place to live (shelter)
Motive Name MotiveAnimal Behavior Intrinsic Feeling PowerDesire to influence (including leadership; related to mastery) Dominant animals eat more food Efficacy CuriosityDesire for knowledge Animals learn to find food more efficiently and learn to avoid preditor Wonder Independence Desire to be autonomous Motivates animals to leave nest, searching for foods over a larger area. Freedom StatusDesire for social standing (including desire for attention) Attention in nest leads to better feedings Self- importance
Chapter 3.2 – Needs of Organisms Motive NameMotiveAnimal Behavior Intrinsic Feeling Social contact Desire for peer companionship (desire to play) Safety in numbers for animals in wild Fun VengeanceDesire to get even (including the desire to compete, to win) Animals fight when threatened Vindication HonorDesire to obey a traditional moral code Animal runs back to herd when stared at by predators Loyalty IdealismDesire to improve society (including altruism, justice) Unclear: Do animals show altruism? Compassion
Chapter 3.2 – Needs of Organisms (continued) Motive NameMotive Animal Behavior Intrinsic Feeling Physical Exercise Desire to exercise muscles Strong animals eat more and are less vulnerable to prey Vitality RomanceDesire for sex (including courting) Reproduction essential for species survival Lust FamilyDesire to raise own children Protection of young facilitates survival Love OrderDesire to organize (including desire for ritual) Cleanliness rituals promote health Stability
Chapter 3.2 – Needs of Organisms (continued) Motive NameMotive Animal Behavior Intrinsic Feeling EatingDesire to eatNutrition is essential for survival Satiation (avoidance of hunger) AcceptanceDesire for approval Unclear: animal self- concept? Self- confidence TranquilityDesire to avoid anxiety; fear Animal runs away from danger Safe, relaxed SavingDesire to collect, value of frugality Animals hoards food and other materials Ownership
Sorry ‘bout yesterday – someone accused me of being mean and that was not me desire.
Objectives Describe the structure of an ecosystem. Relate the concept of habitat destruction to the lose of biodiversity. Chapter 3.3 – The Ecosystem
Chapter 3.3 – Ecosystem The type of environment in which a particular species lives is its h abitat Total range in which a species can live is its geographical range Species Group of organism so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring Example +
Chapter 3.3 – Ecosystem The variety of species in an ecosystem is known as biodiversity Population Same species living in same area Community All the populations that live and interact in the same area Ecosystem All the communities that live and interact in the same area as well as the abiotic features
Chapter 3.3 – Ecosystem - Finis Habitat destruction is the largest of the many threats to biodiversity At least 90 percent of areas now inhabited by great apes - gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos (pygmy chimps) in Africa and orangutans in southeast Asia - will be affected within 30 years unless urgent action is taken now, UNEP said.
Quiz – Chapter 3 1. Relatively speaking, if Earth time were reduced to 24 hours humans only appeared ____________ ago. 2. ___________ is the continual process of breaking down rocks, generally done by H2O 3. _____________ is nutrient-poor warm water lasting longer than usual which leads to death of fish. 4. Approximately 1 billion years after plants first evolved _____________ freed oxygen for use by organisms. 5.Warm-blooded animals have a wider range of environmental tolerance, but requires greater ____________.
6.The most important requirement for all living things is ___________. 7.Organism’s ___________ provides (Q6), food and a place to live (shelter). 8.The type of environment in which a particular species lives is its ___________. 9. A __________ is all the populations that live and interact in the same area. 10.Habitat destruction is the largest of the many threats to _______________.