Presentation on theme: "1 Designing Visuals Tables to organize lists of data Tables to organize lists of data Graphs / Charts to show relationships Graphs / Charts to show relationships."— Presentation transcript:
1 Designing Visuals Tables to organize lists of data Tables to organize lists of data Graphs / Charts to show relationships Graphs / Charts to show relationships Illustrations to show product or flow Illustrations to show product or flow The meshing of words with images
2 Tables Present detailed facts in a concise, readable form Help reader find specific facts quickly Discuss table in text Time (hour) midnight 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 noon 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 Normal (mg/dl*) 100.3 93.6 88.2 100.5 138.6 102.4 93.8 132.3 103.8 93.6 127.8 109.2 Diabetic (mg/dl) 175.8 165.7 159.4 72.1 271.0 224.6 161.8 242.7 219.4 152.6 227.1 221.3 Table 2. Blood glucose levels [Carlson, 1982]. * decaliters/milligram
3 Graphs and Charts Convert numbers and words into shapes that are easy to interpret and compare Types include Types include Bar graphs Bar graphs Line graphs Line graphs Pie charts Pie charts
5 Bar graphs compare whole units Figure 4. Response of T-cells in cosmonauts after short- term and long-term flights [Konstantinova, 1991]. Cells% Flight Duration (Days) 10 20 30 7-10 112–175 211–366 Normal range
6 Pie charts compare parts of a whole Industrial wastes (28%) Medical and research wastes (16%) Power reactor wastes (64%) Government wastes (2%) Figure 5. Volume of low-level nuclear wastes from various sources [League, 1985].
7 Graphic Illustrations Photograph, drawing, or diagram to enhance comprehension Introduce and explain the illustration in the text Make sure your text is consistent with your illustration
8 Photographs provide realism Figure 2. Space Shuttle Challenger, from about 59 seconds to 60 seconds into launch (January 28, 1986). On the right rocket, flame first becomes visible and then impinges on tank. 59 seconds 59.5 seconds 60 seconds
9 Drawings provide control over detail Used to describe a mechanism
10 Diagrams show flow of a variable through a system or a process Figure 8. Schematic of test stand for evaluating components of an air conditioner design.
11 Introduce and explain illustrations in the text Figure 7. Title of figure. Some formats allow you extra sentences to explain unusual details...., as shown in Figure 7.
12 Scientists and engineers often use illustrations that are too complex for the text Figure 5. Schematic of thermal storage system. RECEIVER FLASH TANK HP HTR DEAR- ATOR HOT WELL TSSGTSSG TURBINE TSU DSPH TSH FT The thermal storage system stores heat in a huge, steel- walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver passes through heat exchangers to heat the thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. A schematic of this system is shown in Figure 5.
13 The precision of the illustrations should reflect the precision of the text The thermal storage system, shown in Figure 6, stores heat in a huge, steel-walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver heats a thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. Figure 6. Schematic of thermal storage system for the solar power plant. steam generator 650°F 580°F 425°F 435°F solar receiver 575°F 425°F 530°F 250°F Thermal Tank Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger
14 Inconsistencies between text and images disrupt flow The testing hardware of the rocket shown in Figure 8 has five main components: camera, digitizer, computer, I/O interface, and mechanical interface. Commands are generated by the computer, then passed through the I/O interface to the mechanized interface where the keyboard of the ICU is operated. The display of the ICU is read with a television camera and then digitized. This information is then manipulated by the computer to direct the next command. PRINTER CONTROL TERMINAL COMPUTER DIGITIZER CAMERA ELECTRO- MECHANICAL INTERFACE ROCKET Figure 8. Testing hardware.
15 Make sure your text is consistent with the diagram Our system for testing the launch controls of the rocket consists of four main parts: computer, electro-mechanical interface, camera, and digitizer. In this system (shown in Figure 9), the computer generates test commands to the rocket through the electro- mechanical interface. The test results are read with a television camera, and then digitized. The computer receives the information from the digitizer, and then directs the next test command. Figure 9. System to test launch controls for rocket. Camera Digitizer Computer Electro- Mechanical Interface 1 2 3 4 Rocket
16 Student Sample – Photograph Micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS)