2Learning ObjectivesUpon successful completion of this topic the trainee will be able to perform the following:Convert Standard time to Military timeUnderstand the use of the ship’s bellIdentify types of shipboard termsIdentify types of ship hull structuresIdentify types of shipboard decksShip Compartment Numbering
3Military TimeThe military uses the 24-hour system of keeping time, with the day starting at midnight. Four numerals are used to indicate the time - the first two digits indicating hours and the last two representing minutes. The hour of midnight is expressed two ways: 0000 to indicate the start of the date and 2400 to indicate the end of the day. Each hour, starting at midnight, is increased by 100 (0000, 0100, 0200, 0300 and so on) until 2400 is reached.Time is spoken in hundreds. For example, 0100 (1:00 am) is pronounced 'ZERO ONE HUNDRED', 2000 (8:00 pm) is pronounced 'TWENTY HUNDRED', 2315 (11:15 pm) is pronounced 'TWENTY THREE FIFTEEN'.Converting time on a 12-hour clock to military time is an easy matter. The hours from midnight to noon present no problem; from noon to midnight, simply add 12 hours to the time indicated
4Standard Time To Military Time 12:00 PM/AM2400/000012:00 PM120012:15 AM001512:15 PM121512:30 AM003012:30 PM123012:45 AM004512:45 PM12451:00 AM01001:00 PM13002:00 AM02002:00 PM14003:00 AM03003:00 PM15004:00 AM04004:00 PM16005:00 AM05005:00 PM17006:00 AM06006:00 PM18007:00 AM07007:00 PM19008:00 AM08008:00 PM20009:00 AM09009:00 PM210010:00 AM100010:00 PM220011:00 AM110011:00 PM2300
5Military Time to Ship Bells The use of the bells to mark the time stems from the period when seamen (1) could not afford a personal time piece (i.e. - a watch) and (2) even if they could, they had no idea on how to tell time with such an instrument. The bells mark the hours of the watch in half-hour increments. The seamen would know if it were morning, noon, or night. Each watch* is four hours long and the bells are struck thus:Notes: * - The period from 1600 to 2000 is split into two dog watches. These watches run from 1600 to 1800 and from 1800 to This alternates the daily watch routine so Sailors on the mid-watch would not have it the second night, and, the split also gives each watchstander the opportunity to eat the evening meal. ** - The end of the watch is considered at 8 bells, hence the saying "Eight Bells and All Is Well."
8Shipboard Terms FORE and AFT is the lengthwise direction of the ship. ATHWARTSHIP is the crosswise direction of the ship.BOW is the front of pointy end of the ship.STERN is the rearmost or backend of the ship.CENTERLINE is the center of the ship from BOW to STERN.STARBOARD is the right side of the ship.PORT is the left side of the ship.AMIDSHIPS is the middle part of the ship.TOPSIDE is a general term referring to the weather decks.BELOW is downward, beneath or beyond something, as to lay below.AHEAD is the direction in front of you.ASTERN is the direction behind you.
10Structural TermsKEEL is the backbone of the ship and it's where all the frames start from.FRAMES run from the keel upward towards the main deck.LONGITUDINALS are frames that run parallel to the keel.STANCHIONS are vertical posts used for supporting decks and smaller ones used to support lifelines.BULKHEADS are vertical walls on the interior part of the ship or building.
12Hull Terms WATERLINE is the water level along the hull of the ship. DRAFT is the vertical distance from the keel to the waterline/FREEBOARD is the distance from the waterline to the main deck.DECKS are the floors of a ship of a building.OVERHEADS are the ceilings of a ship or a building.COMPARTMENTS are the spaces inside a ship or building.FORECASTLE (pronounced FOHK' SEL) is the forward section of the main deck. It's the part of the main deck from the bow to just abaft of the Anchor Windlass.FANTAIL is the aft end of the main deck.LIFELINES, in general, are the lines around the weather decks.WEATHER DECK is the deck or part of a deck exposed to the weather.SUPERSTRUCTURE is the ship's structure above the main deck.
14Types of Decks DECK is a level of the ship or building. COMPLETE DECK is a deck that extends from side to side and bow to stern.MAIN DECK is the uppermost complete deck.FORECASTLE (pronounced FOHK' SEL) is the forward section of the main deck. It's the part of the main deck from the bow to just abaft of the Anchor Windlass. It is also known for being a deck above the main deck at the bow.HALF DECK is any partial deck between complete decks.FLATS are plating or grating installed only to provide working or walking surfaces above the bilges.LEVELS is a general term used to designate decks above the main deck and decks in the engine room.QUARTERDECK is an area designed by the Commanding Officer as the place to carry out official functions and normally located at the ship's brow.
16Compartment Numbering Compartments are numbered for identification to facilitate location. The identification number assigned locates each compartment specifically, and generally indicates the function and use of the compartment. Compartment numbers consist of four parts, separated by hyphens, for example L, in the following sequence:Deck NumberFrame NumberPosition in relation to centerline of shipCompartment use
17Compartment Numbering LDeck NumberThe main deck is the basis for this numbering scheme and is numbered 1. The first deck below the main deck is numbered 2, and so on. The first horizontal division above the main deck is numbered 01, and the numbers continue consecutively for subsequent upper division boundaries. Compartments are numbered by the lowest deck within the space.
18Compartment Numbering LFrame NumberThe forward perpendicular is the basis for this numbering scheme and is numbered "0" (zero). "Frames" are consecutively numbered, based on frame spacing, until the aft perpendicular is reached. Forward of the forward perpendicular, frames are "lettered" starting from the perpendicular to the bull nose (A, B, C, etc.) while frames aft of the after perpendicular are "double lettered" to the transom (AA, BB, CC, etc.). Compartments are numbered by the frame number of the foremost bulkhead of the compartment. If this bulkhead is located between "frames," the number of the foremost "frame" within the compartment is used. Fractional numbers are not used except where frame spacing exceeds four feet.
20Compartment Numbering LPosition in relation to centerline of shipThe ship's centerline is the basis for this numbering scheme. Compartments located so that the centerline of the ship passes through them are assigned the number 0. Compartments located completely to starboard of the centerline are given odd numbers, and those to port of centerline are given even numbers. The first compartment outboard of the centerline to starboard is 1, the second is 3 and so forth. Similarly, the first compartment outboard the centerline to port is 2, the second is 4 and so forth. There may be cases in which the centerline of the ship would pass through more than one compartment, all of which may have the same forward bulkhead number. Whenever this occurs, that compartment having the portion of the forward bulkhead through which the centerline of the ship passes is assigned the number 0 and the other carry numbers 01, 02, 03 etc.
21Compartment Numbering LCompartment UseA capital letter is used to identify the assigned primary use of the compartment. Only one capital letter is assigned, except that on dry and liquid cargo ships a double letter identification is used to designate compartments assigned to carry cargo. Examples of compartment use are storage areas, various tanks, and living quarters.Some examples from NSTM 079 volume 2:A - Storage areaC - Ship and Fire Control operating spaces normally mannedE - Machinery spaces which are normally mannedF - Fuel or Fuel Oil tanksJ - JP-5 tankL - Living quartersM - Ammunition (stowage and handling)Q - Areas not otherwise coveredT - Vertical access trunkV - Void
22Compartment Numbering Bringing it all togetherCompartment: LWe can determine that it is located: 2 one deck below the Main Deck, 30 foremost bulkhead is at frame 30, 0 centered upon the centerline of the ship, and L is used as a living space.