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EML Dialogue 3 December 2012

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**Agenda FCAT 2.0 Grade 5 Update Beyond Problem-Solving Key Words**

Grade 5/4/3 Pacing Guides Interpreting Grades 5/4/3 Common Core Standards Beginning to do Curriculum Mapping

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Grade 5 CBT Update

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**Your own word problem Write a word problem on a post it note.**

Put it aside until later.

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**Word Problems Action Non-action Grouping/Partitioning Join Separate**

Part-part-whole Compare Grouping/Partitioning Multiplication Measurement Division Partitive Division Modified from Children’s Mathematics Cognitively Guided Instruction, Carpenter et al.

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**Action-Join/Separate**

There is change over time. There is a direct or implied action. The initial quantity is increased/decreased by a particular amount. There are three distinct types: Result Unknown Change Unknown Start Unknown Modified from Children’s Mathematics Cognitively Guided Instruction, Carpenter et al.

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**Part-part-whole There is NO change over time.**

There is NOT a direct or implied action. There are two types: Whole Unknown Part Unknown Modified from Children’s Mathematics Cognitively Guided Instruction, Carpenter et al.

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**Compare There is a relationship between quantities.**

There is a comparison of two distinct, disjointed sets. There are three types: Difference Unknown Compared Unknown Referent Unknown Modified from Children’s Mathematics Cognitively Guided Instruction, Carpenter et al.

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**Grouping/Partitioning**

There are three quantities. There are three types of problems. Multiplication Measurement Division Partitive Division Modified from Children’s Mathematics Cognitively Guided Instruction, Carpenter et al.

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Visual model

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compare

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**5 ? 11 5 + ? = 11 OR 11 – 5 = ? Difference Unknown**

Tommy has 11 buttons. Tess has 5 buttons. How many more buttons does Tommy have than Tess? Difference Unknown 5 ? 11 5 + ? = 11 OR 11 – 5 = ?

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**Tess has 5 buttons. Tommy has 6 more than Tess**

Tess has 5 buttons. Tommy has 6 more than Tess. How many buttons does Tommy have? Compared Unknown 5 6 ? 5 + 6 = ?

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**? 6 11 ? + 6 = 11 OR 11 – 6 = ? Referent Unknown**

Tommy has 11 buttons. He has 6 more buttons than Tess. How many buttons does Tess have? Referent Unknown ? 6 11 ? + 6 = 11 OR 11 – 6 = ?

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**MACC.3.OA.1.1 New Florida Coding for CCSSM: Domain Math Common Core**

Standard Grade level Cluster

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Grade 5

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**In Grade 5, instructional time should focus on three critical areas:**

developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and developing understanding of volume.

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Students apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to represent the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators as equivalent calculations with like denominators. They develop fluency in calculating sums and differences of fractions, and make reasonable estimates of them. Students also use the meaning of fractions, of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions make sense. (Note: this is limited to the case of dividing unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.)

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Students develop understanding of why division procedures work based on the meaning of base-ten numerals and properties of operations. They finalize fluency with multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They apply their understandings of models for decimals, decimal notation, and properties of operations to add and subtract decimals to hundredths. They develop fluency in these computations, and make reasonable estimates of their results. Students use the relationship between decimals and fractions, as well as the relationship between finite decimals and whole numbers (i.e., a finite decimal multiplied by an appropriate power of 10 is a whole number), to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing finite decimals make sense. They compute products and quotients of decimals to hundredths efficiently and accurately.

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**Students recognize volume as an attribute of three-dimensional space**

Students recognize volume as an attribute of three-dimensional space. They understand that volume can be measured by finding the total number of same-size units of volume required to fill the space without gaps or overlaps. They understand that a 1-unit by 1-unit by 1-unit cube is the standard unit for measuring volume. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume. They decompose three-dimensional shapes and find volumes of right rectangular prisms by viewing them as decomposed into layers of arrays of cubes. They measure necessary attributes of shapes in order to determine volumes to solve real world and mathematical problems.

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**interpreting the Standards**

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MACC.5.NF.2.3 Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ¸ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.NF.2.3**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and Examples**

Students are expected to demonstrate their understanding using concrete materials, drawing models, and explaining their thinking when working with fractions in multiple contexts. They read 3/5 as “three fifths” and after many experiences with sharing problems, learn that 3/5 can also be interpreted as “3 divided by 5.” Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples: Ten team members are sharing 3 boxes of cookies. How much of a box will each student get? When working this problem a student should recognize that the 3 boxes are being divided into 10 groups, so s/he is seeing the solution to the following equation, 10 x n = 3 (10 groups of some amount is 3 boxes) which can also be written as n = 3 ÷ 10. Using models or diagram, they divide each box into 10 groups, resulting in each team member getting 3/10 of a box. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Two afterschool clubs are having pizza parties. For the Math Club, the teacher will order 3 pizzas for every 5 students. For the student council, the teacher will order 5 pizzas for every 8 students. Since you are in both groups, you need to decide which party to attend. How much pizza would you get at each party? If you want to have the most pizza, which party should you attend? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**The six fifth grade classrooms have a total of 27 boxes of pencils**

The six fifth grade classrooms have a total of 27 boxes of pencils. How many boxes will each classroom receive? Students may recognize this as a whole number division problem but should also express this equal sharing problem as They explain that each classroom gets boxes of pencils and can further determine that each classroom get or boxes of pencils. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.NF.2.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. a. Interpret the product (a/b) x q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a x q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) x 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) x (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) x (c/d) = ac/bd.) b. Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.NF.2.4**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and Examples**

Students are expected to multiply fractions including fractions greater than 1, and mixed numbers. They multiply fractions efficiently and accurately as well as solve problems in both contextual and non-contextual situations. As they multiply fractions such as 3/5 x 6, they can think of the operation in more than one way. 3 x (6 ÷ 5) or (3 x 6/5) (3 x 6) ÷ 5 or 18 ÷ 5 (18/5) Students create a story problem for 3/5 x 6 such as, Isabel had 6 feet of wrapping paper. She used 3/5 of the paper to wrap some presents. How much does she have left? Every day Tim ran 3/5 of mile. How far did he run after 6 days? (Interpreting this as 6 x 3/5) Adapted from Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples: Building on previous understandings of multiplication**

Rectangle with dimensions of 2 and 3 showing that 2 x 3 = 6. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Rectangle with dimensions of 2 and showing that 2 x 2/3 = 4/3 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) 2 1 2 groups of 3 1 2 :**

Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) In solving the problem x 4 5 , students use an area model to visualize it as a 2 by 4 array of small rectangles each of which has side lengths 1/3 and 1/5. They reason that 1/3 x 1/5 = 1/(3 x 5) by counting squares in the entire rectangle, so the area of the shaded area is (2 x 4) x 1/(3 x 5) = 2×4 3×5 .They can explain that the product is less than because they are finding of They can further estimate that the answer must be between and because of is more than of and less than one group of Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) The area model and the line segments show that the area is the same quantity as the product of the side lengths. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Larry knows that x is To prove this he makes the following array. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**MACC.5.NF.2.5 Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by:**

a. Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. b. Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (nxa)/(nxb) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.NF.2.5**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples: 3 4 x 7 is less than 7 because 7 is multiplied by a factor less than 1 so the product must be less than 7. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) x 8 must be more than 8 because 2 groups of 8 is 16 and is almost 3 groups of 8. So the answer must be close to, but less than 24. 3 4 = 5×3 5× because multiplying by is the same as multiplying by 1. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.NF.2.6 Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.NF.2.6**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Evan bought 6 roses for his mother of them were red. How many red roses were there? Using a visual, a student divides the 6 roses into 3 groups and counts how many are in 2 of the 3 groups. A student can use an equation to solve. 2 3 x 6 = = 4 red roses Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Mary and Joe determined that the dimensions of their school flag needed to be ft. by ft. What will be the area of the school flag? A student can draw an array to find this product and can also use his or her understanding of decomposing numbers to explain the multiplication. Thinking ahead a student may decide to multiply by instead of Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) The explanation may include the following:**

First, I am going to multiply by 1 and then by 1 1 3 When I multiply by 1, it equals Now I have to multiply by 1 1 3 1 3 times 2 is 1 3 times is 1 12 So the answer is or = = 3 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.NF.2.7 Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions. Students able to multiply fractions in general can develop strategies to divide fractions in general, by reasoning about the relationship between multiplication and division. But division of a fraction by a fraction is not a requirement at this grade. Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) 4 = 1/3. Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4÷(1/5) = 20 because 20 (1/5) = 4.

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.NF.2.7**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and Examples:**

In fifth grade, students experience division problems with whole number divisors and unit fraction dividends (fractions with a numerator of 1) or with unit fraction divisors and whole number dividends. Students extend their understanding of the meaning of fractions, how many unit fractions are in a whole, and their understanding of multiplication and division as involving equal groups or shares and the number of objects in each group/share. In sixth grade, they will use this foundational understanding to divide into and by more complex fractions and develop abstract methods of dividing by fractions. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Division Example: Knowing the number of groups/shares and finding how many/much in each group/share Four students sitting at a table were given 1/3 of a pan of brownies to share. How much of a pan will each student get if they share the pan of brownies equally? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) The diagram shows the 1/3 pan divided into 4 equal shares with each share equaling 1/12 of the pan Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Knowing how many in each group/share and finding how many groups/shares Angelo has 4 lbs of peanuts. He wants to give each of his friends 1/5 lb. How many friends can receive 1/5 lb of peanuts? A diagram for 4 ÷ 1/5 is shown below. Students explain that since there are five fifths in one whole, there must be 20 fifths in 4 lbs. 1 lb. of peanuts Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) How much rice will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of rice equally? A student may think or draw ½ and cut it into 3 equal groups then determine that each of those part is 1/6. A student may think of ½ as equivalent to 3/6. 3/6 divided by 3 is 1/6. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.MD.2.2 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.MD.2.2**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Ten beakers, measured in liters, are filled with a liquid. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) The line plot shows the amount of liquid in liters in 10 beakers. If the liquid is redistributed equally, how much liquid would each beaker have? (This amount is the mean.) Students apply their understanding of operations with fractions. They use either addition and/or multiplication to determine the total number of liters in the beakers. Then the sum of the liters is shared evenly among the ten beakers. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.MD.3.5 Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

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**Related Mathematical Practices-MACC.5.MD.3.5**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Students need multiple opportunities to measure volume by filling rectangular prisms with cubes and looking at the relationship between the total volume and the area of the base. They derive the volume formula (volume equals the area of the base times the height) and explore how this idea would apply to other prisms. Students use the associative property of multiplication and decomposition of numbers using factors to investigate rectangular prisms with a given number of cubic units. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) When given 24 cubes, students make as many rectangular prisms as possible with a volume of 24 cubic units. Students build the prisms and record possible dimensions. Length Width Height 1 2 12 6 4 3 8 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students determine the volume of concrete needed to build the steps in the diagram below. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) A homeowner is building a swimming pool and needs to calculate the volume of water needed to fill the pool. The design of the pool is shown in the illustration below. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.G.1.2 Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.5.G.1.2**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Sara has saved $20. She earns $8 for each hour she works. If Sara saves all of her money, how much will she have after working 3 hours? 5 hours? 10 hours? Create a graph that shows the relationship between the hours Sara worked and the amount of money she has saved. What other information do you know from analyzing the graph? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Use the graph below to determine how much money Jack makes after working exactly 9 hours. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.5.G.2.4 Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.5.G.2.4**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Properties of figure may include: Properties of sides—parallel, perpendicular, congruent, number of sides Properties of angles—types of angles, congruent Examples: A right triangle can be both scalene and isosceles, but not equilateral. A scalene triangle can be right, acute and obtuse. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Triangles can be classified by: Angles Sides**

Right: The triangle has one angle that measures 90º. Acute: The triangle has exactly three angles that measure between 0º and 90º. Obtuse: The triangle has exactly one angle that measures greater than 90º and less than 180º. Sides Equilateral: All sides of the triangle are the same length. Isosceles: At least two sides of the triangle are the same length. Scalene: No sides of the triangle are the same length. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Grade 4

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**In Grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas:**

developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.

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Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equal-sized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multi-digit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context.

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Students develop understanding of fraction equivalence and operations with fractions. They recognize that two different fractions can be equal (e.g., 15/9 = 5/3), and they develop methods for generating and recognizing equivalent fractions. Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

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Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-dimensional shapes, students deepen their understanding of properties of two-dimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry.

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**Interpreting the Standards**

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MACC.4.OA.1.3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.OA.1.3**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Students need many opportunities solving multistep story problems using all four operations. An interactive whiteboard, document camera, drawings, words, numbers, and/or objects may be used to help solve story problems. Example: Chris bought clothes for school. She bought 3 shirts for $12 each and a skirt for $15. How much money did Chris spend on her new school clothes? 3 x $12 + $15 = a Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) In division problems, the remainder is the whole number left over when as large a multiple of the divisor as possible has been subtracted. Example: Kim is making candy bags. There will be 5 pieces of candy in each bag. She had 53 pieces of candy. She ate 14 pieces of candy. How many candy bags can Kim make now? (7 bags with 4 leftover) Kim has 28 cookies. She wants to share them equally between herself and 3 friends. How many cookies will each person get? (7 cookies each) 28 ÷ 4 = a There are 29 students in one class and 28 students in another class going on a field trip. Each car can hold 5 students. How many cars are needed to get all the students to the field trip? (12 cars, one possible explanation is 11 cars holding 5 students and the 12th holding the remaining 2 students) = 11 x 5 + 2 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Estimation skills include identifying when estimation is appropriate, determining the level of accuracy needed, selecting the appropriate method of estimation, and verifying solutions or determining the reasonableness of situations using various estimation strategies. Estimation strategies include, but are not limited to: front-end estimation with adjusting (using the highest place value and estimating from the front end, making adjustments to the estimate by taking into account the remaining amounts), clustering around an average (when the values are close together an average value is selected and multiplied by the number of values to determine an estimate), Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Estimation strategies include, but are not limited to: rounding and adjusting (students round down or round up and then adjust their estimate depending on how much the rounding affected the original values), using friendly or compatible numbers such as factors (students seek to fit numbers together - e.g., rounding to factors and grouping numbers together that have round sums like 100 or 1000), using benchmark numbers that are easy to compute (students select close whole numbers for fractions or decimals to determine an estimate). Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.4.NBT.2.6 Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.NBT.2.6**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

In fourth grade, students build on their third grade work with division within 100. Students need opportunities to develop their understandings by using problems in and out of context. Examples: A 4th grade teacher bought 4 new pencil boxes. She has 260 pencils. She wants to put the pencils in the boxes so that each box has the same number of pencils. How many pencils will there be in each box? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Students may use digital tools to express ideas.**

Using Base 10 Blocks: Students build 260 with base 10 blocks and distribute them into 4 equal groups. Some students may need to trade the 2 hundreds for tens but others may easily recognize that 200 divided by 4 is 50. Using Place Value: 260 ÷ 4 = (200 ÷ 4) + (60 ÷ 4) Using Multiplication: 4 x 50 = 200, 4 x 10 = 40, 4 x 5 = 20; = 65; so 260 ÷ 4 = 65 Students may use digital tools to express ideas. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Using an Open Array or Area Model Example 1: 150 ÷ 6**

After developing an understanding of using arrays to divide, students begin to use a more abstract model for division. This model connects to a recording process that will be formalized in the 5th grade. Example 1: ÷ 6 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students make a rectangle and write 6 on one of its sides. They express their understanding that they need to think of the rectangle as representing a total of 150. Students think, 6 times what number is a number close to 150? They recognize that 6 x 10 is 60 so they record 10 as a factor and partition the rectangle into 2 rectangles and label the area aligned to the factor of 10 with 60. They express that they have only used 60 of the 150 so they have 90 left. Recognizing that there is another 60 in what is left they repeat the process above. They express that they have used 120 of the 150 so they have 30 left. Knowing that 6 x 5 is 30. They write 30 in the bottom area of the rectangle and record 5 as a factor. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Example 2: 1917 ÷ 9**

A student’s description of his or her thinking may be: I need to find out how many 9s are in I know that 200 x 9 is 1800. So if I use 1800 of the 1917, I have 117 left. I know that 9 x 10 is 90. So if I have 10 more 9s, I will have 27 left. I can make 3 more 9s. I have 200 nines, 10 nines and 3 nines. So I made 213 nines. 1917 ÷ 9 = 213. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.4.NF.1.1 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n x a)/(n x b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.NF.1.1**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

This standard extends the work in third grade by using additional denominators (5, 10, 12, and 100). Students can use visual models or applets to generate equivalent fractions. All the models show 1/2. The second model shows 2/4 but also shows that 1/2 and 2/4 are equivalent fractions because their areas are equivalent. When a horizontal line is drawn through the center of the model, the number of equal parts doubles and size of the parts is halved. Students will begin to notice connections between the models and fractions in the way both the parts and wholes are counted and begin to generate a rule for writing equivalent fractions. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

97
MACC.4.NF.1.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.NF.1.2**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

99
**Explanations and examples:**

Benchmark fractions include common fractions between 0 and 1 such as halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, eighths, tenths, twelfths, and hundredths. Fractions can be compared using benchmarks, common denominators, or common numerators. Symbols used to describe comparisons include <, >, =. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Fractions may be compared using ½ as a benchmark.**

Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.4.NF.2.3 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8=1/8+1/8+1/8 ; 3/8=1/8+2/8; 2 1/8= /8=8/8+8/8 +1/8. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.NF.2.3**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

104
**Explanations and examples:**

A fraction with a numerator of one is called a unit fraction. When students investigate fractions other than unit fractions, such as 2/3, they should be able to decompose the non-unit fraction into a combination of several unit fractions. Example: 2/3 = 1/3 + 1/3 Being able to visualize this decomposition into unit fractions helps students when adding or subtracting fractions. Students need multiple opportunities to work with mixed numbers and be able to decompose them in more than one way. Students may use visual models to help develop this understanding. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

106
**Example of word problem:**

Mary and Lacey decide to share a pizza. Mary ate 3/6 and Lacey ate 2/6 of the pizza. How much of the pizza did the girls eat together? Solution: The amount of pizza Mary ate can be thought of a 3/6 or 1/6 and 1/6 and 1/6. The amount of pizza Lacey ate can be thought of a 1/6 and 1/6. The total amount of pizza they ate is 1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 or 5/6 of the whole pizza. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

107
Examples (Cont.) A separate algorithm for mixed numbers in addition and subtraction is not necessary. Students will tend to add or subtract the whole numbers first and then work with the fractions using the same strategies they have applied to problems that contained only fractions. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Example:**

Susan and Maria need 8 3/8 feet of ribbon to package gift baskets. Susan has 3 1/8 feet of ribbon and Maria has 5 3/8 feet of ribbon. How much ribbon do they have altogether? Will it be enough to complete the project? Explain why or why not. The student thinks: I can add the ribbon Susan has to the ribbon Maria has to find out how much ribbon they have altogether. Susan has 3 1/8 feet of ribbon and Maria has 5 3/8 feet of ribbon. I can write this as 3 1/ /8. I know they have 8 feet of ribbon by adding the 3 and 5. They also have 1/8 and 3/8 which makes a total of 4/8 more. Altogether they have 8 4/8 feet of ribbon. 8 4/8 is larger than 8 3/8 so they will have enough ribbon to complete the project. They will even have a little extra ribbon left, 1/8 foot. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Example:**

Trevor has 4 1/8 pizzas left over from his soccer party. After giving some pizza to his friend, he has 2 4/8 of a pizza left. How much pizza did Trevor give to his friend? Solution: Trevor had 4 1/8 pizzas to start. This is 33/8 of a pizza. The x’s show the pizza he has left which is 2 4/8 pizzas or 20/8 pizzas. The shaded rectangles without the x’s are the pizza he gave to his friend which is 13/8 or 1 5/8 pizzas. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.4.NF.2.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5(1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5(1/4). Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3(2/5) as 6(1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n(a/b)=(n a)/b.) Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.NF.2.4**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Students need many opportunities to work with problems in context to understand the connections between models and corresponding equations. Contexts involving a whole number times a fraction lend themselves to modeling and examining patterns. Examples: Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) If each person at a party eats 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there are 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef are needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? A student may build a fraction model to represent this problem: Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

115
MACC.4.MD.1.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36),…

116
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.NF.2.4**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

117
**Explanations and examples:**

The units of measure that have not been addressed in prior years are pounds, ounces, kilometers, milliliters, and seconds. Students’ prior experiences were limited to measuring length, mass, liquid volume, and elapsed time. Students did not convert measurements. Students need ample opportunities to become familiar with these new units of measure. Students may use a two-column chart to convert from larger to smaller units and record equivalent measurements. They make statements such as, if one foot is 12 inches, then 3 feet has to be 36 inches because there are 3 groups of 12. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) kg g ft in lb oz 1 1000 12 16 2 2000 24 32 3 3000 36**

ft in lb oz 1 1000 12 16 2 2000 24 32 3 3000 36 48 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.4.MD.1.2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.MD.1.2**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

121
**Explanations and examples:**

Division/fractions: Susan has 2 feet of ribbon. She wants to give her ribbon to her 3 best friends so each friend gets the same amount. How much ribbon will each friend get? Students may record their solutions using fractions or inches. (The answer would be 2/3 of a foot or 8 inches. Students are able to express the answer in inches because they understand that 1/3 of a foot is 4 inches and 2/3 of a foot is 2 groups of 1/3.) Addition: Mason ran for an hour and 15 minutes on Monday, 25 minutes on Tuesday, and 40 minutes on Wednesday. What was the total number of minutes Mason ran? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Subtraction: A pound of apples costs $1.20. Rachel bought a pound and a half of apples. If she gave the clerk a $5.00 bill, how much change will she get back? Multiplication: Mario and his 2 brothers are selling lemonade. Mario brought one and a half liters, Javier brought 2 liters, and Ernesto brought 450 milliliters. How many total milliliters of lemonade did the boys have? Number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale can represent measurement quantities. Examples include: ruler, diagram marking off distance along a road with cities at various points, a timetable showing hours throughout the day, or a volume measure on the side of a container. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.MD.2.4 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.MD.2.4**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

125
**Explanations and examples:**

Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

126
MACC.4.G.1.1 Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

127
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.G.1.1**

MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision.

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Examples of points, line segments, lines, angles, parallelism, and perpendicularity can be seen daily. Students do not easily identify lines and rays because they are more abstract. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.4.G.1.2 Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

130
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.4.G.1.2**

MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure.

131
**Explanations and examples:**

Two-dimensional figures may be classified using different characteristics such as, parallel or perpendicular lines or by angle measurement. Parallel or Perpendicular Lines: Students should become familiar with the concept of parallel and perpendicular lines. Two lines are parallel if they never intersect and are always equidistant. Two lines are perpendicular if they intersect in right angles (90º). Students may use transparencies with lines to arrange two lines in different ways to determine that the 2 lines might intersect in one point or may never intersect. Further investigations may be initiated using geometry software. These types of explorations may lead to a discussion on angles. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Grade 3

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**In Grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:**

developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100; developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and describing and analyzing two-dimensional shapes.

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Students develop an understanding of the meanings of multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and problems involving equal-sized groups, arrays, and area models; multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is finding an unknown factor in these situations. For equal-sized group situations, division can require finding the unknown number of groups or the unknown group size. Students use properties of operations to calculate products of whole numbers, using increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties to solve multiplication and division problems involving single-digit factors. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, students learn the relationship between multiplication and division.

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Students develop an understanding of fractions, beginning with unit fractions. Students view fractions in general as being built out of unit fractions, and they use fractions along with visual fraction models to represent parts of a whole. Students understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole. For example, 1/2 of the paint in a small bucket could be less paint than 1/3 of the paint in a larger bucket, but 1/3 of a ribbon is longer than 1/5 of the same ribbon because when the ribbon is divided into 3 equal parts, the parts are longer than when the ribbon is divided into 5 equal parts. Students are able to use fractions to represent numbers equal to, less than, and greater than one. They solve problems that involve comparing fractions by using visual fraction models and strategies based on noticing equal numerators or denominators.

137
**Students recognize area as an attribute of two-dimensional regions**

Students recognize area as an attribute of two-dimensional regions. They measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of same-size units of area required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps, a square with sides of unit length being the standard unit for measuring area. Students understand that rectangular arrays can be decomposed into identical rows or into identical columns. By decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays of squares, students connect area to multiplication, and justify using multiplication to determine the area of a rectangle.

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Students describe, analyze, and compare properties of two-dimensional shapes. They compare and classify shapes by their sides and angles, and connect these with definitions of shapes. Students also relate their fraction work to geometry by expressing the area of part of a shape as a unit fraction of the whole.

139
**Interpreting the Standards**

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MACC.3.OA.1.3 Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

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**Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division**

142
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.OA.1.3**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

143
**Explanations and examples:**

Students use a variety of representations for creating and solving one-step word problems, i.e., numbers, words, pictures, physical objects, or equations. They use multiplication and division of whole numbers up to 10 x10. Students explain their thinking, show their work by using at least one representation, and verify that their answer is reasonable. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

144
**Examples (Cont.) Word problems may be represented in multiple ways:**

Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) Examples of division problems:**

Determining the number of objects in each share (partitive division, where the size of the groups is unknown): The bag has 92 hair clips, and Laura and her three friends want to share them equally. How many hair clips will each person receive? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Determining the number of shares (measurement division, where the number of groups is unknown) Max the monkey loves bananas. Molly, his trainer, has 24 bananas. If she gives Max 4 bananas each day, how many days will the bananas last? Solution: The bananas will last for 6 days. Students may use interactive whiteboards to show work and justify their thinking. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

148
MACC.3.OA.3.7 Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

149
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.OA.3.7**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

150
**Explanations and examples:**

By studying patterns and relationships in multiplication facts and relating multiplication and division, students build a foundation for fluency with multiplication and division facts. Students demonstrate fluency with multiplication facts through 10 and the related division facts. Multiplying and dividing fluently refers to knowledge of procedures, knowledge of when and how to use them appropriately, and skill in performing them flexibly, accurately, and efficiently. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Strategies students may use to attain fluency include: Multiplication by zeros and ones Doubles (2s facts), Doubling twice (4s), Doubling three times (8s) Tens facts (relating to place value, 5 x 10 is 5 tens or 50) Five facts (half of tens) Skip counting (counting groups of __ and knowing how many groups have been counted) Square numbers (ex: 3 x 3) Nines (10 groups less one group, e.g., 9 x 3 is 10 groups of 3 minus one group of 3) Decomposing into known facts (6 x 7 is 6 x 6 plus one more group of 6) Turn-around facts (Commutative Property) Fact families (Ex: 6 x 4 = 24; 24 ÷ 6 = 4; 24 ÷ 4 = 6; 4 x 6 = 24) Missing factors General Note: Students should have exposure to multiplication and division problems presented in both vertical and horizontal forms. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.OA.4.8 Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (This standard is limited to problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers; students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations).

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.OA.4.8**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

154
**Explanations and examples:**

Students should be exposed to multiple problem-solving strategies (using any combination of words, numbers, diagrams, physical objects or symbols) and be able to choose which ones to use. Examples: Jerry earned 231 points at school last week. This week he earned 79 points. If he uses 60 points to earn free time on a computer, how many points will he have left? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) A student may use the number line above to describe his/her thinking, “ = 240 so now I need to add 70 more. 240, 250 (10 more), 260 (20 more), 270, 280, 290, 300, 310 (70 more). Now I need to count back , 300 (back 10), 290 (back 20), 280, 270, 260, 250 (back 60).” A student writes the equation, – 60 = m and uses rounding ( – 60) to estimate. A student writes the equation, – 60 = m and calculates = 19 and then calculates = m. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) The soccer club is going on a trip to the water park. The cost of attending the trip is $63. Included in that price is $13 for lunch and the cost of 2 wristbands, one for the morning and one for the afternoon. Write an equation representing the cost of the field trip and determine the price of one wristband. The above diagram helps the student write the equation, w + w + 13 = 63. Using the diagram, a student might think, “I know that the two wristbands cost $50 ($63-$13) so one wristband costs $25.” To check for reasonableness, a student might use front end estimation and say = 50 and 50 ÷ 2 = 25. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) When students solve word problems, they use various estimation skills which include identifying when estimation is appropriate, determining the level of accuracy needed, selecting the appropriate method of estimation, and verifying solutions or determining the reasonableness of solutions. Estimation strategies include, but are not limited to: using benchmark numbers that are easy to compute front-end estimation with adjusting (using the highest place value and estimating from the front end making adjustments to the estimate by taking into account the remaining amounts) rounding and adjusting (students round down or round up and then adjust their estimate depending on how much the rounding changed the original values) Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.OA.4.9 Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

159
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.OA.4.9**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

160
**Explanations and examples:**

Students need ample opportunities to observe and identify important numerical patterns related to operations. They should build on their previous experiences with properties related to addition and subtraction. Students investigate addition and multiplication tables in search of patterns and explain why these patterns make sense mathematically. For example: Any sum of two even numbers is even. Any sum of two odd numbers is even. Any sum of an even number and an odd number is odd. The multiples of 4, 6, 8, and 10 are all even because they can all be decomposed into two equal groups. The doubles (2 addends the same) in an addition table fall on a diagonal while the doubles (multiples of 2) in a multiplication table fall on horizontal and vertical lines. The multiples of any number fall on a horizontal and a vertical line due to the commutative property. All the multiples of 5 end in a 0 or 5 while all the multiples of 10 end with 0. Every other multiple of 5 is a multiple of 10. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students also investigate a hundreds chart in search of addition and subtraction patterns. They record and organize all the different possible sums of a number and explain why the pattern makes sense. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.NBT.1.3 Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

163
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.NBT.1.3**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

164
**Explanations and examples:**

Students use base ten blocks, diagrams, or hundreds charts to multiply one-digit numbers by multiples of 10 from They apply their understanding of multiplication and the meaning of the multiples of 10. For example, 30 is 3 tens and 70 is 7 tens. They can interpret 2 x 40 as 2 groups of 4 tens or 8 groups of ten. They understand that 5 x 60 is 5 groups of 6 tens or 30 tens and know that 30 tens is 300. After developing this understanding they begin to recognize the patterns in multiplying by multiples of 10. Students may use manipulatives, drawings, document camera, or interactive whiteboard to demonstrate their understanding. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

165
MACC.3.NF.1.1 Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

166
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.NF.1.1**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.4. Model with mathematics MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

167
**Explanations and examples:**

Some important concepts related to developing understanding of fractions include: Understand fractional parts must be equal-sized Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Examples (Cont.) The number of equal parts tell how many make a whole**

As the number of equal pieces in the whole increases, the size of the fractional pieces decreases The size of the fractional part is relative to the whole The number of children in one-half of a classroom is different than the number of children in one-half of a school. (the whole in each set is different therefore the half in each set will be different) When a whole is cut into equal parts, the denominator represents the number of equal parts The numerator of a fraction is the count of the number of equal parts ¾ means that there are 3 one-fourths Students can count one fourth, two fourths, three fourths Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students express fractions as fair sharing, parts of a whole, and parts of a set. They use various contexts (candy bars, fruit, and cakes) and a variety of models (circles, squares, rectangles, fraction bars, and number lines) to develop understanding of fractions and represent fractions. Students need many opportunities to solve word problems that require fair sharing. To develop understanding of fair shares, students first participate in situations where the number of objects is greater than the number of children and then progress into situations where the number of objects is less than the number of children. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Four children share six brownies so that each child receives a fair share. How many brownies will each child receive? Six children share four brownies so that each child receives a fair share. What portion of each brownie will each child receive? What fraction of the rectangle is shaded? How might you draw the rectangle in another way but with the same fraction shaded? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

171
**Examples (Cont.) What fraction of the set is black?**

Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

172
MACC.3.NF.1.3 Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram. Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.NF.1.3**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. MP.8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

An important concept when comparing fractions is to look at the size of the parts and the number of the parts. For example, is smaller than because when 1 whole is cut into 8 pieces, the pieces are much smaller than when 1 whole is cut into 2 pieces. Students recognize when examining fractions with common denominators, the wholes have been divided into the same number of equal parts. So the fraction with the larger numerator has the larger number of equal parts. 2 6 < 5 6 To compare fractions that have the same numerator but different denominators, students understand that each fraction has the same number of equal parts but the size of the parts are different. They can infer that the same number of smaller pieces is less than the same number of bigger pieces. 3 8 < 3 4 Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.MD.1.2 Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). (Excludes compound units such as cm3 and finding the geometric volume of a container.) Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. Excludes multiplicative comparison problems (problems involving notions of “times as much”).

176
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.MD.1.2**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively, MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

177
**Explanations and examples:**

Students need multiple opportunities weighing classroom objects and filling containers to help them develop a basic understanding of the size and weight of a liter, a gram, and a kilogram. Milliliters may also be used to show amounts that are less than a liter. Example: Students identify 5 things that weigh about one gram. They record their findings with words and pictures. (Students can repeat this for 5 grams and 10 grams.) This activity helps develop gram benchmarks. One large paperclip weighs about one gram. A box of large paperclips (100 clips) weighs about 100 grams so 10 boxes would weigh one kilogram. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.MD.2.4 Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

179
**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.MD.2.4**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.6. Attend to precision. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Some important ideas related to measuring with a ruler are: The starting point of where one places a ruler to begin measuring Measuring is approximate. Items that students measure will not always measure exactly ¼, ½ or one whole inch. Students will need to decide on an appropriate estimate length. Making paper rulers and folding to find the half and quarter marks will help students develop a stronger understanding of measuring length Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students generate data by measuring and create a line plot to display their findings. An example of a line plot is shown below: Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.MD.3.5 Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement. A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area. A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.MD.3.5**

MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Students develop understanding of using square units to measure area by: Using different sized square units Filling in an area with the same sized square units and counting the number of square units An interactive whiteboard would allow students to see that square units can be used to cover a plane figure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.MD.3.7 Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning. Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.MD.3.7**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Students tile areas of rectangles, determine the area, record the length and width of the rectangle, investigate the patterns in the numbers, and discover that the area is the length times the width. Example: Joe and John made a poster that was 4’ by 3’. Mary and Amir made a poster that was 4’ by 2’. They placed their posters on the wall side-by-side so that that there was no space between them. How much area will the two posters cover? Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students use pictures, words, and numbers to explain their understanding of the distributive property in this context. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Students can decompose a rectilinear figure into different rectangles. They find the area of the figure by adding the areas of each of the rectangles together. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.MD.4.8 Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.MD.4.8**

MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP.4. Model with mathematics. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

Students develop an understanding of the concept of perimeter by walking around the perimeter of a room, using rubber bands to represent the perimeter of a plane figure on a geoboard, or tracing around a shape on an interactive whiteboard. They find the perimeter of objects; use addition to find perimeters; and recognize the patterns that exist when finding the sum of the lengths and widths of rectangles. Students use geoboards, tiles, and graph paper to find all the possible rectangles that have a given perimeter (e.g., find the rectangles with a perimeter of 14 cm.) They record all the possibilities using dot or graph paper, compile the possibilities into an organized list or a table, and determine whether they have all the possible rectangles. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) The patterns in the chart allow the students to identify the factors of 12, connect the results to the commutative property, and discuss the differences in perimeter within the same area. This chart can also be used to investigate rectangles with the same perimeter. It is important to include squares in the investigation. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) Given a perimeter and a length or width, students use objects or pictures to find the missing length or width. They justify and communicate their solutions using words, diagrams, pictures, numbers, and an interactive whiteboard. Students use geoboards, tiles, graph paper, or technology to find all the possible rectangles with a given area (e.g. find the rectangles that have an area of 12 square units.) They record all the possibilities using dot or graph paper, compile the possibilities into an organized list or a table, and determine whether they have all the possible rectangles. Students then investigate the perimeter of the rectangles with an area of 12. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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MACC.3.G.1.1 Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.

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**Related Mathematical Practices – MACC.3.G.1.1**

MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. MP.6. Attend to precision. MP.7. Look for and make use of structure. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Explanations and examples:**

In second grade, students identify and draw triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, and hexagons. Third graders build on this experience and further investigate quadrilaterals (technology may be used during this exploration). Students recognize shapes that are and are not quadrilaterals by examining the properties of the geometric figures. They conceptualize that a quadrilateral must be a closed figure with four straight sides and begin to notice characteristics of the angles and the relationship between opposite sides. Students should be encouraged to provide details and use proper vocabulary when describing the properties of quadrilaterals. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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Examples (Cont.) They sort geometric figures (see examples below) and identify squares, rectangles, and rhombuses as quadrilaterals. Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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**Curriculum Mapping Topic 1 Time allocations Essential Content**

Objectives Resources Assessment Arizona Department of Education: Standards and Assessment Division

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questions?

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**Maria Teresa Diaz-Gonzalez, District Instructional Supervisor**

Maria Campitelli, District Curriculum Support Specialist Isis Casares, District Curriculum Support Specialist

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Building Conceptual Understanding of Fractions Part One

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