This was an election in which both party’s believed that the republic’s survival depended on if their candidate won the election! or agriculture Let’s review what Jefferson and Adams and their political party’s stood for!
-Candidates did not travel around the country trying to get votes like they do today. -Newspapers or letters were the primary way for supporters to build up their candidate or tear down their opponent. -Supporters of Adams portrayed Jefferson the following ways: a) a pro-French radical b) if elected Jefferson would bring the violence of the French Revolution to America c) a godless, nonbeliever who they said wanted to destroy organized religion, because of his interest in science and philosophy d) he was often called a Jacobin, after the most radical faction in France during the French Revolution
-Supporters of Jefferson portrayed Adams in the following ways: a) as a monarchist, if elected Adams would name himself King b) he would use the new Army to limit American’s rights c) was accused of plotting to have his son marry one of the daughters of King George III and thus establish a dynasty to unite Britain and the United States -Hamilton of his own party said Adams was emotionally unstable, given to impulsive and irrational decisions, unable to coexist with his closest advisers, and generally unfit to be President
ELECTION OF 1800 Jefferson & Burr received an equal number of votes in the Electoral College This meant that the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives was required to choose a president
-Two Democratic-Republicans finished tied to be President -Hamilton pushed for Jefferson, because he felt that Burr was unreliable and did not like him at all. -This causes a major problem between Burr and Hamilton in years to come -Burr became Jefferson’s vice-president. -The 1796 and 1800 Elections led to passage of the Twelfth Amendment -That amendment stated that the president and vice-president would be together on separate ballots.
Significance of Election of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution) Revolutionary“Revolutionary” achievement Jefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change over as “the bloodless revolution” Significance of Election of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution) Revolutionary“Revolutionary” achievement Jefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change over as “the bloodless revolution” John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/Republican
JEFFERSON IS INAUGURATED -Inauguration took place in Washington, D.C. near the executive mansion (White House) and the not yet completed Capital building. -Jefferson walked to his inauguration on March 4, 1801 -In his inaugural speech, Jefferson made it clear that he ■ supported the will of the people ■ stressed limited government ■ supported majority rule ■ supported protection for civil liberties Capital building in 1800!
JEFFERSON IN OFFICE -Jefferson had a Democratic-Republican congress in both houses ■ got Congress to allow the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire ■ cut military spending and reduced the size of the military ■ reduced domestic taxes such as the whiskey tax -Jefferson hoped these savings would help us pay down the national debt -He believed in a small government and at this time it consisted of a few hundred people -He believed that the government’s primary functions were ■ to protect the nation from foreign threats ■ deliver the mail ■ collect customs duties -Jefferson did not agree with the National Bank, but allowed it to continue
1. On Adam’s last day as president, he fills courts with as many Federalist leaning judges as possible These appointments were called “midnight judges” - Adams waited until 9 o’clock on his last night as President to appoint them. MARBURY V. MADISON
2. Jefferson becomes President the next day but some of Adams’ judges have not yet received their official forms a. Jefferson says they cannot be judges MARBURY V. MADISON
b. Jefferson orders James Madison (Secretary of State) not to give out the papers to the midnight judges MARBURY V. MADISON
3. William Marbury is one of the midnight judges affected by Jefferson’s decision MARBURY V. MADISON
a. Marbury demands that the Supreme Court examine the case and force the executive branch to hand out his papers MARBURY V. MADISON
4. Marbury says Judiciary Act of 1789 gives the Supreme Court the right to do this MARBURY V. MADISON
5. John Marshall, the chief justice and a Federalist, appointed by President Adams, agrees to listen to Marbury’s case MARBURY V. MADISON
a. Marshall agrees that Marbury had been treated unfairly AND….. MARBURY V. MADISON
b. that the Judiciary Act would allow the Supreme Court to force Madison into making Marbury a judge BUT…. MARBURY V. MADISON
c. Marshall has to decide if this is constitutional or unconstitutional ? MARBURY V. MADISON
6. Marshall decides that forcing the government to make Marbury a judge would be unconstitutional, because the law Marbury sued under did not meet the criteria MARBURY V. MADISON
7. Marshall’s ruling established Judicial Review – meaning the Supreme Court can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional MARBURY V. MADISON
a. Judicial review has increased the Supreme Court’s legal authority… making it a much stronger branch and part of the law making process MARBURY V. MADISON