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1 gal/TalmudMap/Gemara.html gal/TalmudPage.html

2 Tannaim “Repeaters” of Torah + tradition. Collected in Mishnah

3 l/TalmudMap/Mishnah.html MISHNAH: continued to attract commentaries: Now traditional to print the MISHNAH along with respected commentaries made in Middle Ages.

4 Mishnah Discusses “HALACHAH” Jewish Law. HEBREW Uses Bible, but does not discuss it directly. NOT essays, but discussions.

5 Mishnah: 2 uses Mishnah: A collection of discussions mishnah: each discrete discussion The Mishnah is made up of all the mishnahs…

6 First mishnah “When to recite Evening Shema?” R. Eliezer, “From when the priests enter to eat offerings, until end of first watch” Sages, “Until Midnight” R. Gamaliel, “Until dawn”

7 Resolution Gamaliel, “If it is not dawn yet, you must recite Shema, even if Sages say you have only until Midnight.”

8 Why did sages say until Midnight? “To keep a man far from sin.” “Fence around the Torah”

9 2. When to recite the morning Shema? When you can tell apart blue and white. R. Eliezer says, “Blue and Green, and do it before sunrise”. R. Joshua says, “within 3 hours of sunrise: like reading Torah”. –NO RESOLUTION. First option preferable

10 3. Recline, or stand for shema? Shammai: evening you must recline morning you must stand “When you lie down and when you rise up.” (Deut. 6:7) Hillel: However you want “And as you go about your way”

11 If Hillel is right, then why does Bible say “when you lie down… rise up” Majority position: since Shema-time is about the time people go to bed and wake up. Very simple answer, but it needs to be said.

12 R. Tarfon Recites according to Shammai Moral: following Shammai is dangerous… But Hillel’s position is not binding on everyone.

13 4. Number of blessings “They” say no changes to the custom. “Seal off a blessing” No description of what this means.

14 5. Exodus at night? Unclear references.

15 Issue: Mishnah not final word more questions raised than answered

16 Interpretation. Mishnah requires study, interpretation. Rabbinic interpreters recorded their work over the centuries.

17 Tannaim “Repeaters” of Torah + tradition. Collected in Mishnah

18 Mishnah Discussed by the AMORAIM Famous discussions remembered Others hypothetical “R. So-&-so would have said…”

19 Discussions Gemara = “Traditions” of the Amoraim concerning Mishnah

20 Gemara collected Gemara discussions on particular mishnah paragraphs are collected with the Mishnah quotations.

21 New Tradition: Talmud Discussions stemming from Mishnah.

22 MISHNAH + GEMARA TALMUD On handout diagram, A & B sections are the Talmud proper Surrounding sections are later additions by medieval commentators, etc.

23 2 Talmuds JERUSALEM BABYLONIAN 4th c. CE6th c. CE. YerushalmiBavli

24 Bavli Longer More Authoritative Better edited “THE Talmud” usually refers to Bavli.

25 Extent More than ½ Mishnah discussed Each mishnah followed by Gemara Gemara on short mishnahs can go on for pages…

26 Gemara on Mishnah Berakhot 1. T: When to recite evening Shema? G. Where is the Tanna standing? Why start with evening? Start with the Morning!

27 G. Answer Tanna stands on scripture: “When you lie down … rise up” Amora adds: he can also argue from creation: “Evening and morning” (Gen. 1:5)

28 Proof-text Reference to a passage to prove a halakhic opinion. Bible Early Rabbinic discussions outside Mishnah –Tosefta –Midrash

29 Amora: Troubled by lack of concern for proof by the Tanna. Assumes Tanna MUST have had a biblical reason for his opinion, so Amora fills the need.

30 Goal of Talmud: Mishnah and Written Torah MUST be shown to be inter-related. Show Mishnah to be consistent.

31 Problem Mishnah puts: Evening first in 1.1. Morning first in 1.4. Amora in Gemara first proved 1.1 based on Torah, now 1.4 disregards the principle!

32 Solution: Simple, but must be made clear: Tanna spoke of evening then morning, but continued to talk of morning since he was on the subject… Then returned to the evening “CHIASTIC” structure.

33 G. Question: When is it evening? Tanna mentioned the offerings? Why? Amora assumes that Tanna knew: evening was when the time the stars come out. Answer: to teach something else: the time of the priests ate the offerings.

34 Digression: Ritual impurity Does the coming of evening remove some impurity? Yes

35 Back to the point… Mishnah refers to offerings A baraita refers to a poor mans evening meal. Solution: both events were simultaneous.

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