Presentation on theme: "The Imperial Crisis 1763 - 1775. Developing Crisis The colonies remained loyal Englishmen, though they continued to be unruly: they are seen on the home."— Presentation transcript:
The Imperial Crisis
Developing Crisis The colonies remained loyal Englishmen, though they continued to be unruly: they are seen on the home island as bordering on disloyal if not out right disloyal. The colonists began to lobby for representation. They did not want representation in Parliament. They knew they would be outnumbered and ineffective as representatives in Parliament. The colonists wanted the king to consult with their representative assemblies as he did with Parliament putting their assemblies on a equal basis with Parliament.
The New Imperial System Three goals: 1.Provide for colonies’ security 2.Reassert crown’s authority over colonies 3.Shift financial burden of war debt and colonial defense to colonies
Proclamation of 1763
The New Imperial System Opening Moves Sugar Act 1764 – taxes sugar, coffee and other imports Currency Act of 1764 – prohibited use of colonial money: only the British pound was permissible Quartering Act of 1765 – required the garrisoning of British soldiers at colonial expense Stamp Act – Required a stamp on newspapers, pamphlets, cards, death certificates, etc. Problems: tax with the sole purpose of raising revenue for England not colonies Results VA (led by Patrick Henry [laudanum head]) declared only it had the right to tax Virginians Mob activity (burning the tax collectors in effigy; liberty poles) tar and feather Repealed in 1766
George Grenville and his Stamps
The Stamp Act Crisis Colonial Responses Political Actions Popular Actions British Responses British Merchants seek relief Parliament Repeals the act in 1766 Parliament passes the Declaratory Act Parliament passes Revenue Act Lessons Learned
The Townshend Crisis Townshend Revenue Act of Duty on lead, glass, paint, paper and tea Provocative moves - Seeks confrontation Colonial responses - Sons of Liberty - Circular letter Parliament’s response - Dissolve Assemblies - Increase British troops strength
The Boston Massacre
The Last Imperial Crisis Tea Act (1773) Boston Tea Party (1774) The Coercive Acts (1774) The First Continental Congress (1774) Lexington & Concord (1775)
The Boston Tea Party
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts Closed port of Boston Powers of Mass. Assembly & town meetings curtailed Permitted quartering of troops in private houses Imperial officers exempted from trial
The Opening Salvos September Congress recommends that the colonies begin military preparations December George III declares the New England colonies to be in a state of rebellion In early 1775 Gen. Gage ordered to restore royal rule in Mass by: 1. Closing Massachusetts Assembly 2. Arrest its leading members 3. Capturing arms stockpiled by militia By spring 1775, colonial leaders and the British commander both expected fighting to break out.
19 April 1775 General Thomas Gage Commander-in-Chief, North America Governor, Massachusetts Bay Colony Order British column to Lexington and Concord searching for John Hancock, Sam Adams and munitions stores.
The midnight ride of Paul Revere & William Dawes
“The shot heard ‘round the world”
Colonial Response to the New Imperial System Benjamin Franklin - “Repeal the laws, Renounce the Right, Recall the troops, Refund the money, and return to the old methods”