Presentation on theme: "Ch13. Biological Foundations of Language"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch13. Biological Foundations of Language David W. CarrollPsychology of Language, 5th edition
2Index Introduction Brain Mechanisms and Language Lateralization of Language ProcessesEvolution of Language
3Introduction Language processes from a biological viewpoint Two reasons to know about biology of languagePrevious discussioncomprehension & productionFurther discussionAcquisitionThree sectionsBrain Damage related to languageNature of hemisphere differenceEvolutionary human language
4What is Language?Language is thought to be a mechanism for transmitting the information within thoughts.One experiment used to demonstrate this idea requires subjects to listen to a short passage of several sentences. The subjects are then asked to repeat the passage. Most subjects accurately convey the gist of the passage in the sentences they produce, but they do not come close to repeating the sentences verbatim. It appears as if two transformations have occurred. Upon hearing the passage, the subjects convert the language of the passage into a more abstract representation of its meaning, which is more easily stored within memory. In order to recreate the passage, the subject recalls this representation and converts its meaning back into language.
14Major Aphasic Syndromes Behavioral DeficitLesion Site(s)Broca’s aphasiaDisturbance of speech production; agrammatic speech; relatively good comprehension and namingFrontal lobe adjacent to primary motor cortexWernicke’s aphasiaDisturbance in auditory comprehension; fluent speechPosterior portion of first temporal gyrusConduction aphasiaDisturbance of repetition and spontaneous speechLesion in arcuate fasciculus and/or other connections between frontal and temporal lobTranscortical sensory aphasiaDisturbance of single word comprehension with relatively intact repetitionConnections between parietal and temporal lobeTranscortical motor aphasiaDisturbance of spontaneous speech, with sparing of namingSubcortical lesions in areas underlying motor cortexAnomic aphasiaDisturbance of production of single wordsVarious parts of parietal and temporal lobesGlobal aphasiaMajor disturbance of all language functionLarge portions of association cortex
15Some example syntactic deficit Ambiguous sentence It was the girl who chased the boy. (o)It was the boy whom the girl chased. (x)Ambiguous sentenceThe experienced soldiers warned about the dangers before the midnight raid. (easy)The experienced soldiers warned about the dangers conducted the midnight raid. (hard)
24Picture – sentences matching test in split-brain condition Subject-ObjectThe boy kisses the girl.The girl kisses the girl.TenseThe girl is drinking.The girl will drink.Plural nounThe dog jumps over the fence.The dogs jump over the fence.
25Experienced Musician Bever and Chiarello (1974) On musical task (non-speech task)Right-ear advantages for the experiencedNo left-ear advantages
26Right-hemisphere damage Kaplan and colleaguesDifficulty integrating information about performance with information about character’s relationship.
27Lexical task Word in left visual field Dominant meaning is immediately facilitated, but not for subordinated meaning.Particular meaningDominant meaning is facilitated immediately, but inappropriate meaning is not suppressed.Alternative meaningBurgess and Simpson (1988)Chiarello (1991)
31Language evolution and the arcuate fasciculus Figure from the News and Views summary by Ghazanfar - Chimpanzees are phylogenetically between macaques and humans in the primate lineage, and the similarly 'in between' pattern of their arcuate pathway terminations strongly suggest a gradual evolution of this pathway.(a) Changing patterns of connections between frontal cortical areas and the temporal lobe in humans, chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. AS, arcuate sulcus; CS, central sulcus; IFS, inferior frontal sulcus; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; PS, principal sulcus; PrCS, precentral sulcus; STS, superior temporal sulcus. (b) The voice area in the rhesus macaque relative to other auditory cortical areas and where the voice area would be if it were in a similar location as the human voice area. LS, lateral sulcus; IOS, inferior occipital sulcus; STS, superior temporal sulcus; other labels refer to cytoarchitectonic areal designations. The lateral sulcus is cut open to reveal the superior temporal plane. In this plane, the core region is thought to contain 'primary-like' areas, responding best to pure tones, whereas the surrounding belt areas are more responsive to complex sounds. The voice area in macaques is anterior to the core and belt regions. INS, insula; IT, inferotemporal cortex; Tpt, temporoparietal area.
32Comparison of the supralaryngeal vocal tracts in a new born infant, Neanderthal, and an adult human