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Essential Question: How did Jefferson & his “agrarian republicanism” help forge a new national identity after the “Revolution of 1800”? Lesson Plan for.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: How did Jefferson & his “agrarian republicanism” help forge a new national identity after the “Revolution of 1800”? Lesson Plan for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question: How did Jefferson & his “agrarian republicanism” help forge a new national identity after the “Revolution of 1800”? Lesson Plan for Sept 25, 2007: Warm-Up question, Jefferson video, Jefferson notes.

2 America in 1800: Society & Economy

3 North America in 1800 Spain controlled the most territory in North America with valuable cities like Mexico City, New Orleans, St Louis, & Los Angeles In 1800, the USA was a new & weak nation sharing North America with other European powers But, Spain’s hold on these territories was slipping British Canada was sparsely populated, but its control over the fur trade & Great Lakes frustrated westward-bound Americans Russia dominated the fur trade in Alaska France ruled Haiti & gained Louisiana from Spain in 1801 during the Napoleonic Wars

4 Many western settlers were concerned that Spain controlled New Orleans
The United States in 1800 From 1800 to 1810, the U.S. had major population growth; Grew by 2 million people Intense migration to the trans-Appalachian West after 1790 led to new states …and cities, like Cincinnati which used the Mississippi & Ohio Rivers for trade Ohio (1803) Kentucky (1792) Many western settlers were concerned that Spain controlled New Orleans Tennessee (1796)

5 The U.S. Economy in 1800 Cotton quickly became the dominant Southern crop of the 19th century By 1810, 84% of Americans were directly involved in agriculture Cotton production entrenched the South’s “need” for slaves & expedited Northern industrialism The Southern economy was dominated by rice & tobacco cultivation Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793 allowed for a cotton boom in the South

6 The U.S. Economy in 1800 By 1800, industrialization was just beginning in America The Northern economy was more diverse than the South, but most Americans were involved in cultivating livestock & grains By 1810, 84% of Americans were directly involved in agriculture Boston, NY, Philadelphia relied on international trade, otherwise cities played a marginal role (only 5% of Americans lived in cities) Samuel Slater designed cotton-spinning factories in NE; but far more textiles were homemade

7 Jefferson as President

8 Jefferson as President
Jefferson entered office after the “revolution of 1800” with a clear political ideology & with goals: To reduce size & cost of gov’t & promote republican agrarianism To repeal key Federalist policies (Alien & Sedition Acts & John Adams’ midnight appointments) To maintain international peace However, Jefferson would have to compromise many of his ideological principles to be an effective president 5

9 The Silent Revolution At a time in world history when changes in political power were often accompanied by bloody revolutions, the election of 1800 is significant because the main power of the US government, the presidency, was shifted from the Federalist party to the Republican party with no violence and/or protests involved Jefferson realized this significance and in his inaugural address he stated that “we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”

10 Jeffersonian Reforms Jefferson’s priority was to reduce the role of the national gov’t & return key decisions to the states Repealed all excise taxes on Americans & relied on shipping taxes to generate revenue Slashed military spending, reduced the army by 50%, & retired most naval ships Eliminated all national debt But…Jefferson approved of the creation of the Army Corps of Engineers & the US Military Academy at West Point 6

11 Adams’ Midnight Appointments
Before leaving office, John Adams signed the Judiciary Act of 1801 which created new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists: These “midnight appointments” were an obvious attempt to fill the courts with partisan judges The most important Adams’ appointee was John Marshall as Chief Justice of Supreme Court Who will become the greatest Supreme Court chief justice ever! Beware of the Baggett editorial: “John Marshall, the greatest Supreme Court chief justice ever!” 12

12 Adams’ Midnight Appointments
Federalists charged this was a violation Constitution In 1802, Republicans repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 & abolished these new federal courts William Marbury sued to the Supreme Court because he was denied his appointment In Marbury v. Madison (1803), Marshall & the court ruled against Marbury that Congress could deny this appointment Can only be removed if commit “high crimes or misdemeanors” Marshall & the Supreme Court established the precedent of Judicial Review: the Supreme Court has the authority to determine the constitutionality of Congressional actions 12

13 The Louisiana Purchase
In 1801, France gained Louisiana from Spain & seemed ready to create an empire in North America But, the Haitian revolution & cost of European wars led Napoleon to lose interest in America In 1803, Jefferson negotiated with France to buy New Orleans, but Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million James Monroe & Robert Livingstone were US diplomats to buy New Orleans 7

14 The Louisiana Purchase
Jeffersonian contradictions: The Constitution was vague on which branch had the authority to purchase new lands Jefferson abandoned “strict construction” to buy Louisiana Jefferson signed the Louisiana Gov’t Act which denied self-rule to Louisiana residents Republicans feared giving the mostly French & Spanish residents of New Orleans authority in a territorial assembly James Monroe & Robert Livingstone were US diplomats to buy New Orleans 7

15 The Louisiana Purchase & the Lewis & Clark Expedition
The report from the Lewis & Clark expedition reaffirmed faith in the future economic prosperity of the U.S. Meriwether Lewis & William Clark were commissioned to explore the Louisiana territory Left St. Louis in May 1804 & reached the Pacific in Nov 1805 To determine if the Missouri River flowed to Pacific Ocean Goal #1: Determine if the Missouri River flowed to the Pacific Ocean Goal #2: Collect data on flora & fauna

16 Native American Resistance
The Louisiana Purchase increased tensions with Indians: Americans rejected coexistence with Indians Tecumseh swayed the Shawnee & other tribes to stop selling land & to avoid contact with whites Jefferson hoped to “civilize” Indians into yeoman farmers & planned for a vast reservation west of the Mississippi River 3

17 The Barbary War ( ) In 1801, Jefferson dispatched the U.S. fleet to “negotiate through…a cannon” The North African “Barbary states” demanded tribute from trade ships sailing in the Mediterranean Sea A successful naval blockade led to peace treaty & gained America international respect

18 Jefferson’s Second Term

19 Jefferson’s Reelection
Jefferson ended his 1st term as a very popular president: He maintained internat’l peace with England & France despite continued denial of neutrality Reduced taxes for Americans Doubled the size of the U.S. In 1804, Jefferson was reelected as president & the Republicans took the majority in Congress

20 Despite his electoral victory, serious divisions divided Jefferson’s second term as president

21 Division in the Republican Party
The decline of the Federalists suspended the two-party system: Led to Republican dominance in national politics from But…without a clear party to oppose, many Republicans, began attacking Jefferson The Tertium Quids (“nothings”), criticized Jefferson’s betrayal of strict construction & sacrifice of virtue to get results as president The Jeffersonian & Quid factions became separate parties by 1824 National Republicans were absorbed into the Whig Party Jacksonians became the Democratic Party The “Virginia Dynasty” (Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) dominated the executive branch Republicans controlled both houses of Congress By 1820, the Federalists were no longer acting as a national party; there was little to hold the Democratic-Republican Party together. William H. Crawford in 1824 was the last nominee by the Congressional nominating caucus; but the majority of the party boycotted the caucus. Henry Clay finished fourth in the election that year, behind John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford. Their factions became separate parties after the election, of which the Jacksonians became the basis of the present Democratic Party; the National Republicans were absorbed into the Whig coalition which faded out before the American Civil War. The tertium quids (sometimes shortened to quids) refers to different factions of the United States Democratic-Republican Party during the period In Latin, the term means "a third something". Quid was a disparaging term that referred to cross-party coalitions of Federalists and moderate Democratic-Republicans. When Virginia Congressman John Randolph of Roanoke broke with Jefferson and James Madison in 1806, his Congressional faction was called "quids." Randolph was the leader of the "Old Republican" faction that insisted on strict adherence to the Constitution and opposed any innovations. He made no effort to align with either quid faction in the states and made no effort to build a third party at the federal level. Randolph supported James Monroe against Madison during the runup to the presidential election of 1808, but the state quids supported Madison. They were led by Randolph, who had started as Jefferson's leader in the House and became his bitterest enemy. Randolph denounced the Yazoo Purchase compromise of 1804 as totally corrupt. After Randolph failed in the impeachment of a Supreme Court justice in 1805, he became embittered with Jefferson and Madison, complaining, "Everything and everybody seem to be jumbled out of place, except a few men who are steeped in supine indifference, whilst meddling fools and designing knaves are governing the country " [Risjord 42]. He refused to help fund Jefferson's secret purchase of Florida from Spain. Increasingly, Randolph felt that Jefferson was adopting Federalist policies and betraying the true party spirit. He wrote to an ally that "the Administration....favors federal principles, and, with the exception of a few great rival characters, federal men.... The old {Democratic-) Republican party is already ruined, past redemption. New men and new maxims are the order of the day." [Risjord 47] Randolph's increasingly strident rhetoric limited his influence, and he was never able to build a coalition to stop Jefferson. However, many of his supporters lived on and, by 1824, looked to Andrew Jackson to resurrect what they called "Old Republicanism." 15

22 The Yazoo Controversy Jefferson endured heavy criticism due to the Yazoo Land Fraud: Corrupt GA politicians sold 35 million acres of land to insiders at ridiculously low prices Quids attacked Jefferson for allowing defrauded individuals to keep lands they bought In Fletcher v. Peck (1810), the Supreme Court allowed purchasers to keep these lands Together with Marbury v Madison, the Supreme Court defined itself as a legitimate 3rd branch of gov’t The case established an important precedent: Supreme Court can nullify any unconstitutional state laws Again, it’s the Marshall Court massive fraud perpetrated by several Georgia governors and the state legislature from 1795 to 1803 by selling large tracts of land to insiders at ridiculously low prices.

23 The Slave Trade At the Philadelphia Convention, slavery was tabled until 1808 In Dec 1806, Jefferson urged Congress to prepare a slave law: Southerners furiously argued against any slavery legislation Congress passed a law that ended the slave trade in 1808, but smugglers were to be turned over to local authorities 18

24 Renewed Conflict Overseas
A war would be too expensive & destroy his plans for a small gov’t In 1803, England & France resumed their war & violated U.S. neutrality rights by seizing ships & impressing American sailors: Jefferson refused to declare war on either England or France In 1807, Jefferson approved a very unpopular embargo that prohibited U.S. merchants from trading with England or France The embargo hurt the NE economy The embargo did not hurt England or France Required huge gov’t oversight & an expensive army to suppress smuggling 19

25 C H E S A P E A K E A F F A I R 1806, Chesapeake was a US merchant ship 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed

26 Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported,
“We have never, on any occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge, as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance.” Most Americans were angered over this incident and public opinion was to go to war with the British.


28 Strict Construction of Constitution
JEFFERSON AND CONTRADICTIONS Anti-War and Anti-Navy (Pacifist) Went to war with Barbary Pirates in North Africa Built the “mosquito fleet” of naval ships Anti-British/Pro-French Almost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans. Against slavery Owned 200 slaves Strict Construction of Constitution Used loose construction of Constitution over purchase of Louisiana territory Jefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in a “realistic world”.

29 Conclusions During Jefferson’s two terms:
The U.S. doubled in size, saw huge population growth, & experienced western expansion The role of government shrank The Jefferson presidency led to a divisive, politically partisan era The U.S. grew closer to international war due to failed attempts at reconciliation with Europe

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