Presentation on theme: "Post-Apocalyptic Worlds. Apocalypse a·poc·a·lypse (plural apoc·a·lypses) n 1. total destruction: the total destruction or devastation of something, or."— Presentation transcript:
Apocalypse a·poc·a·lypse (plural apoc·a·lypses) n 1. total destruction: the total destruction or devastation of something, or an instance of this 2. revelation of future: a revelation made concerning the future [13th century. Via late Latin from Greek apokalupsis “revelation,” from apokaluptein “to uncover,” from kaluptein “to cover.”] Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004.
Early Apocalyptic Writing Religious Texts Even though biblical scholars may disagree about the specific meanings of some of the symbols and visions in various apocalyptic writings, they agree that apocalyptic writings serve to give hope to people in times of crisis. By seeing that God is in control of events and has a plan for human history, the faithful are encouraged to look beyond death and the struggles of this life toward a time of justice under God's future rule. http://www.wcg.org/lit/bible/Rev/apocalyptic.htm & http://www.bibleresourcecenter.org ALBRECHT DÜRER German, 1471 - 1528
Modern Apocalyptic Fears Disease Nuclear Accidents Nuclear Weapons Plagues Biological Weapons Over-population Global Warming Comets
The Effects of a Nuclear Bomb: an explosive blast similar to the blast from ordinary chemical explosions (measured in megatons of TNT); direct nuclear radiation; direct thermal radiation (light & heat); pulses of electrical and magnetic energy, called electromagnetic pulse (EMP); the creation of a variety of radioactive particles and are called radioactive fallout when they return to Earth.
US Airforce Estimates of Nuclear Bomb Effects
The “Mike” 10 megaton test Before After The above photograph shows 5 islands of Enewetak Atoll before the "Mike" test (the gray areas surrounding the islands are coral reefs). The test completely vaporized the island of Elugelab as well as portions of Sanil and Teiter, leaving a crater 50 meters deep and 1.9 kilometers wide.
Nuclear Bombs The “Mike” test turned 14,169,250,000 m 3 of earth into radioactive fallout. 10 years later, the world's most powerful hydrogen bomb had an explosive force of 58 megatons, or almost 5 times the blast of “Mike”. The shock wave produced by this bomb was so powerful, it went thrice around the earth. The mushroom cloud extended almost 60 kilometers into the atmosphere. “Mike” test (10.4 megatons) 1952
Nations with Nuclear Weapons United States - 10,640 Russia - 8,600 People's Republic of China - 400 France - 350 United Kingdom - 200 India - 60-90 Pakistan - 24-48 Israel – 5-15 (?) From a high of 65,000 weapons in 1985, there were about 40,000 nuclear weapons in the world in 2002.
40,000 Nuclear Bombs 4000 thermonuclear bombs could destroy all mammal life on earth. Dr. Strangelove -1964
40,000 Reasons People were / are afraid: 4000 thermonuclear bombs could destroy all mammal life on earth. Of the 7,000 U.S. nuclear warheads, 2,500 are maintained on hair-trigger alert, ready for launching. In order to effectively retaliate, the commander of the Strategic Air Command has only three minutes to decide if a nuclear attack warning is valid. He has 10 minutes to find the president for a 30-second briefing on attack options. And the president has three minutes to decide whether to launch the warheads and at which targets. Once launched, the missiles would reach their Russian targets in 15 to 30 minutes.
M.A.D. Mutually Assured Destruction –The theory that peace can best be preserved if nations know that they cannot “afford” to start a war because both sides destruction is guaranteed. –There must never be a scenario that would allow one side to “win”. Therefore it is better for both sides to have lots of very powerful weapons.
Nuclear Fears 1947 | Seven minutes to midnight –The clock first appears on the Bulletin cover as a symbol of nuclear danger. 1949 | Three minutes to midnight –The Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb. 1953 | Two minutes to midnight –The United States and the Soviet Union test thermonuclear devices within nine months of one another. 1998 | Nine minutes to midnight –India and Pakistan “go public” with nuclear tests. –The United States and Russia can’t agree on further deep reductions in their stockpiles. 2002 | Seven minutes to midnight –Little progress is made on global nuclear disarmament. –The United States rejects a series of arms control treaties and announces it will withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. –Terrorists seek to acquire and use nuclear and biological weapons.
Modern Apocalyptic Novels Lord of Light by Roger Zelazny set Hindu mythology in a scifi setting. Childhood’s End by Arthur C. Clarke attempted to explain biblical images in a scifi setting. Left Behind by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins's apocalyptic novel; I Am Legend by Richard Matheson –plague kills or mutates the world’s population; The War of the World by H.G. Wells –aliens threaten to destroy humanity. Lucifer’s Hammer, Larry Niven –a mysterious comet may destroy the world.
Apocalyptic Films Failsafe -1964 Dr. Strangelove -1964 Planet of the Apes -1968 The China Syndrome -1979 The Day After -1983 Independence Day -1996 Armageddon -1998
Post-Apocalyptic Novels The Chrysalids –John Wyndham The White Plague – Frank Herbert The Handmaid’s Tale –Margaret Atwood The Postman –David Brin
Post-Apocalyptic Novels Characteristics: –Something has happened that has shaken human civilization to its roots; –The characters in the novel often don’t understand or remember what the apocalyptic event was; –The setting of the novel allows the author to present contemporary problems in a setting that highlights their importance.
Review An apocalypse is the end of civilization; Nuclear weapons have threatened the world since the 1950’s; Nuclear bombs produce fallout which causes cancer, birth defects, and genetic damage; During the cold-war people feared both a purposeful and an accidental nuclear war between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.; M.A.D. –mutually assured destruction; Post-apocalyptic stories are set after an apocalypse to make a point about our society.