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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 22 Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. An introduction to hazardous chemicals Fish in Lake LeBarge, Canada, have become hazardous to eat because of high DDT levels Arctic fish, birds, and mammals have high amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their bodies DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, PCPs, dioxins The Inuit people have very high loads of POPs How do these toxic chemicals reach remote areas? There are no pesticides or industries
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemicals in remote areas POPs are persistent, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify They are carried to the Arctic in the air They condense on the snowpack and enter water during the spring thaw Plankton pick up the chemicals and pass them up the food chain Highest amounts are in Arctic ponds near seabird nests Feeding birds concentrate the chemicals, which are deposited to the land and water in guano
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Human exposure to chemicals Three-fourths of Inuit women have PCB levels 5 times above safe levels Caribou pick up dioxins in lichens and mosses The Inuit eat the caribou Some POPs are declining in the Arctic Others are increasing and accumulating in polar bears, seals, and foxes E.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers—PBDEs Effects include immune-system disorders, hormone disruptions, cancer, imbalances in births
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Dangers of chemicals Significant dangers are associated with manufacture, use, disposal of many chemicals Few people want to give up their products The best solution? Handle and dispose of chemicals in ways that minimize risks Over the past 30 years, regulations on chemical production, transport, use, and disposal have mushroomed The chemical industry is now heavily regulated
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Toxicology and chemical hazards Toxicology: the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on human and environmental health Toxicologists study acute toxicity effects, chronic effects, and carcinogenic potential Data on toxic chemicals comes from The National Toxicology Program (NTC) The Chemical Repository The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) The EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Dose response and threshold The dose (level of exposure multiplied by the length of time of exposure) is linked with the response (effects) If a chemical has a low toxicity, concern centers on chronic or carcinogenic effects Human exposure to a hazard is a vital part of risk characterization Exposure comes from the workplace, food, water, and environment It is hard to get an accurate determination of exposure
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Threshold level There is usually a threshold level in the dose- response relationship Organisms can usually deal with some level of a substance without suffering ill effects Threshold level: the level below which there are no ill effects Effects above this level depend on concentration and duration of exposure It is high for short exposures, and lower as time increases
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The threshold level
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Threshold levels for carcinogens The EPA takes a zero-dose, zero-response approach for carcinogens There is no evidence of a threshold level for them But lower doses are less likely to produce cancers The field of toxicology is well established It is the most important source of sound science for supporting regulations from the EPA and FDA The NTP was established in 1978 The world’s leader in assessing chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical hazards: HAZMATS Hazardous material (HAZMAT): a chemical that presents a certain hazard or risk (excluding radioactive materials) Ignitability: substances that catch fire readily (gasoline) Corrosivity: substances that corrode tanks and equipment (acids) Reactivity: chemically unstable substances May explode or create toxic fumes if mixed with water (explosives, sulfuric acid) Toxicity: substances that are injurious when eaten or inhaled (chlorine, pesticides, etc.)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. HAZMAT placards
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sources of chemicals Total product life cycle: encompasses all steps in a material’s life from raw materials to disposal Chemical wastes and by-products are inevitable Over 80,000 chemicals are registered in the U.S. They enter the environment at every stage Chemicals enter the environment directly (e.g., fertilizers) Parts are left behind (e.g., evaporation of solvents) Through use (e.g., lubricants, solvents) Through energy use (gasoline, coal, etc.) Through accidents or spills
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Total product life cycle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Federal legislation Industry, small shops, and homes release chemicals Toxic Release Inventory (TRI): provides an annual record of releases of 650 chemicals by 22,000 facilities Total releases have declined by 61% since 1990 The Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA—1986) Industries must report releases of toxic chemicals to the environment The Pollution Prevention Act (1990): mandates collection of data of chemicals treated on-site
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Toxic Release Inventory Does not cover small businesses that release < 500 lbs/year Also excludes gas stations and households Over 3.2 billion lbs/year are released but not included In 2007, the TRI released the following information: Total production of toxic wastes: 24.2 billion lbs Releases to the air: 1,311 million lbs Releases to water: 237 million lbs Releases to land disposal sites and underground injection: 2,538 million lbs Total environmental releases: billion lbs
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Toxic release inventory, 1988–2007
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The threat from toxic chemicals All toxic chemicals are hazards that threaten humans Many are broken down and assimilated Two classes do not readily break down: Heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, tin, chromium, zinc, and copper) and their compounds Synthetic organics If diluted enough in air or water, they may not pose a hazard
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Heavy metals Are used in industry (metalwork, metal plating), batteries, and electronics Were once used in paint, glazes, inks, dyes Lead paint poisoned U.S. children; it was banned in 1978 Heavy metals are extremely toxic They can be soluble in water If absorbed in the body, they interfere with enzyme functioning Small amounts can cause severe consequences Mental retardation, insanity, birth defects
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Organic compounds Petroleum-derived and synthetic organics are the basis for plastics, fibers, synthetic rubber, paintlike coatings, solvents, pesticides, preservatives, etc. Resistance to degradation makes them useful and dangerous Are readily absorbed and interact with enzymes But they cannot be broken down or processed Acute effects: poisoning, death Extended exposure leads to mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic (causing birth defects) effects Liver and kidney dysfunction, sterility, etc.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Dirty dozen Halogenated hydrocarbons: synthetic organics that contain halogens: chlorine, bromine, fluorine, iodine Chlorinated hydrocarbons (organic chlorides): the most common halogenated hydrocarbons Plastics, pesticides (DDT), solvents (carbon tetrachloride), insulation (polychlorinated biphenyls) Most “dirty dozen” POPs are halogenated hydrocarbons All are toxic and cause cancer in animals Many are endocrine disrupters at low levels Banned or restricted by the 2004 Stockholm Convention
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. PERC Perchloroethylene (PERC): a halogenated hydrocarbon Colorless, nonflammable Used in dry cleaning, as a solvent, in home products Is carcinogenic to rats and mice It easily enters groundwater from soil Human exposure occurs in the workplace and from using home products Dizziness, fatigue, headaches, unconsciousness, cancer It is listed in NTP’s 2009 Report on Carcinogens as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Phasing out PERC Dry-cleaning employees have higher rates of cancer and neurological impairment EPA issued rules to phase it out by 2020 Why is it taking so long? The Obama administration will review these rules The U.S. uses 370 million lbs/year 10% from dry cleaners The rest is used in making hydrofluorocarbons (which replace ozone-depleting CFCs)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Halogenated hydrocarbons
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Issues with other organics Phthalates: soften plastic (e.g., teethers, rubber duckies) A possible reproductive hormone disrupter It was banned in 2008 from children’s toys Bisphenol A (BPA): used in plastics (e.g., baby bottles) In animals: obesity, diabetes, infertility, cancer 2008: the FDA declared it did not pose a health hazard An FDA scientific advisory panel said the ruling was flawed
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Another organic Perchlorate: in rocket fuel and other flammable products Now in drinking water and food Found in every brand of powdered infant formula tested Interferes with thyroid gland function The EPA refused to set a drinking water standard in million Americans are exposed to unsafe levels Bush administration regulatory agencies chose lax or no rules for regulating controversial chemicals The EPA also weakened TRI reporting rules Obama favors stricter rules and regulations
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Involvement with food chains Heavy metals and nonbiodegradable synthetic organics are hazardous because they bioaccumulate Minamata disease occurred in Japan in the 1970s A chemical company near the village discharged mercury into a river, which entered the bay Mercury bioaccumulated and biomagnified Cats fed fish suffered acute mercury poisoning: spastic movements, paralysis, coma, and death Humans eating fish suffered the same symptoms, plus mental retardation, insanity, and birth defects; 50 died
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hazardous-waste disposal The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts ended disposal of hazardous wastes into the air and water So companies turned to unregulated land disposal Three land disposal methods were used in the 1970s Without regulations or enforcement, groundwater contamination was inevitable Deep-well injection: boreholes are drilled thousands of feet below groundwater into porous formations A well contains pipes and casings that isolate wastes The well is sealed at the bottom to prevent backup
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deep-well injection Wastes in wells react with natural material, leaving them less hazardous Used for volatile organics, pesticides, fuels, explosives 121 wells operate in the U.S. Mostly in the Gulf Coast region The EPA’s Underground Injection Control Program Wells must be limited to geologically stable areas 203 million lbs in 2007, but amounts have decreased Wells can keep toxic wastes from contaminating water
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deep-well injection
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Surface impoundments Ponds: excavated depressions into which liquid wastes are drained and held The least expensive, most widely used way to dispose of large amounts of water carrying small amounts of waste Solid wastes settle; water evaporates Impoundments can receive wastes indefinitely if: The bottom is well sealed Evaporation equals input of wastes But storms can cause overflow, and evaporated materials can add air pollution
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Surface impoundment
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. RCRA The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1996) prompted the EPA to study surface impoundments The 2007 TRI reported 781 million lbs of toxics released to on-site (disposal by producers on their own facilities) surface impoundments 18,000 surface impoundments exist at 7,500 facilities Two-thirds of impoundments contain materials with carcinogenic and other human health concerns Most impoundments are only a few meters above groundwater, and more than half lack liners
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. People live near impoundments Over 20 million live within 1.2 miles of an industrial impoundment 10% are within 500 feet of a drinking-water well 2%–5% of sites pose possible risks to human health 24% pose a risk of release to the environment Existing state and federal regulations should be enough to cover most impoundment-related problems Gaps in regulatory coverage exist Future regulations may be needed
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Landfills RCRA sets standards for disposal of wastes in landfills Concentrated liquids or solids are put into drums Best-demonstrated available technologies (BDATs) Treatment standards for wastes are set by the EPA Reduce chemical toxicity and mobility Technologies include stabilization and incineration, chemical oxidation, and other specific techniques Only 23 landfills in North America receive off-site hazardous wastes Received 403 million lbs in 2007
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Secure landfills Secure landfill: a reasonably safe landfill that is lined It also has a leachate-removal system It is monitored and properly capped But the barriers are subject to damage and deterioration Surveillance and monitoring systems are needed to prevent leakage
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Secure landfill
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mismanagement of hazardous waste Early land disposal was not regulated Deep wells injected wastes into groundwater Abandoned quarries were used as landfills Surface impoundments had no liners A new enterprise was created: waste disposal Many reputable businesses were formed Midnight dumping: disreputable businesses pocketed fees, then illegally dumped wastes in abandoned warehouses, vacant lots, or landfills The individuals responsible could not be found
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Midnight dumping
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Orphan sites Orphan sites: some companies or individuals stored wastes on their own property, then went out of business, abandoning the property and wastes Leaking drums could cause explosions and fires Valley of the Drums (VOD): in Kentucky One of the most famous abandoned sites Love Canal, New York: brought the problem of unregulated dumping to the public’s attention The absence of public policy made the situation worse
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Valley of the Drums
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Love Canal A school and houses were built on top of a chemical waste dump The surface collapsed, exposing barrels of chemical wastes Fumes and chemicals seeped into cellars People suffered birth defects and miscarriages People demanded that the state do something President Carter signed an emergency declaration in 1978 to relocate hundreds of residents The school closed and homes were demolished
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Love Canal
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Occidental Hooker Chemical and Plastics Company purchased an abandoned canal near Niagara Falls in 1942 It filled the canal with 21,000 tons of hazardous waste Hooker covered the canal with a clay cap and sold it to the school board after warning the board about the buried chemicals Construction penetrated the cap, and rain leached chemicals Occidental Petroleum (the parent company) paid $233 million on the cleanup and lawsuits
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Bad disposal practices were rampant In the 1980s, the U.S. had 75,000 active industrial landfill sites, 180,000 surface impoundments, and 200 facilities that could contaminate groundwater Most were small, but the total problem was immense Thousands of contaminated water wells were closed The problem was found only when people got sick Problems of toxic chemical wastes occur in three areas: Cleaning up the messes already created Regulating disposal of wastes being produced Reducing the quantity of hazardous waste produced
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cleaning up the mess Contaminated drinking water: a major public health threat The first priority: ensure that people have safe water Second: clean up or isolate the pollution’s source to prevent further contamination The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974): the EPA set national standards to protect public health Including allowable levels of specific contaminants Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): if contaminants exceed this level, the water source is closed The EPA has jurisdiction over groundwater, too
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Groundwater remediation Groundwater remediation: a developing technology used if toxic materials have contaminated groundwater Techniques involve drilling wells, pumping out contaminated water, purifying it, and reinjecting it Cleaning up the source of the water is mandatory If contamination is severe, remediation may not be possible Groundwater is considered unfit for drinking
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. LUST remediation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Superfund for toxic sites The most monumental task we face is cleaning up tens of thousands of toxic sites Mangers of operating sites were pressured to clean up Many operators simply declared bankruptcy and abandoned their sites The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA; 1980) Known as Superfund A trust fund that uses money from taxes on chemical raw materials
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CERCLA The trust pays for identification of sites, protection and remediation of groundwater, and cleanup of sites Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA; 1986): greatly expands the Superfund program All sites cannot be cleaned up, so priorities must be set All sites are identified, and threats to groundwater are determined If no immediate threat exists, nothing else is done If a threat exists, measures are taken to protect the public by isolating the wastes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. National Priorities List If a site is contaminated and groundwater will reach wells, remediation is begun immediately National Priorities List (NPL): contains the worst sites These sites are scheduled for total cleanup The site is evaluated to determine the most cost- effective way to clean it up Efforts are made to identify potential responsible parties (PRPs) Industries are “invited” to help pay or participate in cleanup activities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cleanup technology Drums of chemical wastes can be picked up and treated 4,200 drums were removed from the VOD site Contaminated soil is run through an incinerator or kiln, which burns off the chemicals Water is injected into a ring of injection wells and drawn into a central suction well to cleanse soil The water is treated and reused for injection Remediation of the VOD site cost $2.3 million The site was deleted from the NPL in 1996 The site is undeveloped and groundwater isn’t used
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mobile incinerator for toxic waste
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Bioremediation Soil contaminated with toxic organic compounds does not degrade The soil lacks organisms and/or oxygen Bioremediation: another cleanup technology Oxygen and organisms are injected into the site The organisms feed on and eliminate the pollutants Then they die
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Plant food? Phytoremediation: using plants to decontaminate heavy metal-contaminated soil Plants stabilize the soil and reduce movement of contaminants by erosion They also extract the contaminants by direct uptake The plants are removed and treated as toxic waste The process can be slow and is only used where contamination is not toxic to plants Sunflowers capture uranium, poplar trees soak up dry-cleaning solvents, ferns thrive on arsenic
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Evaluating superfund Over 47,000 sites are serious enough to be given Superfund status 33,000 sites do not pose a significant threat Assigned “no further removal action planned” (NFRAP) Over 11,300 sites remain on the active list Some of the worst sites are on military bases A totally heedless and unconscionable discarding of toxic materials 13% of NPL sites are federal facilities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Progress In 2009, 1,264 sites were still on the NPL Since 1980, 1,063 sites have received cleanup- related construction 332 sites have been deleted from the list It takes about 12 years and $20 million to clean a site up Groundwater remediation is slow Other NPL sites are in various stages of analysis, remediation, and construction
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Who pays? CERCLA is based on the “polluter pays principle” Liability is hard to track down Users mount legal defenses to disclaim responsibility If the party can’t be found, or if they can’t pay, the Superfund trust fund kicks in Over 70% of cleanup costs have been paid by polluters The EPA has gained experience with Superfund sites Americans still rate toxic waste third in environmental concerns
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Critics Industries claim they are unfairly blamed for pollution that was legal before CERCLA They feel overly stringent standards of cleanup cost too much without providing additional benefits Congress did not renew the tax on industry in 1995 The $4 billion balance is gone PRPs and the public pay (through taxes) to clean sites Congress appropriated $600 million to Superfund as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009) to create jobs and clean up NPL sites
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Brownfields Brownfields: a highly successful Superfund development Abandoned, idled, or underused industrial or commercial facilities Expansion or development is hampered by real or perceived environmental contamination Hazards not serious enough to be on Superfund NPL still impair $2 trillion worth of real estate The Brownfield Act (2002) gives grants for site assessment and remediation work Limits liability for owners of contaminated land
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Rehabilitation of brownfields Many brownfields are in economically disadvantaged communities Rehabilitation of brownfield sites provides centrally located, prime lands for facilities Protects suburban or greenfield lands (natural ecosystems) It also puts the new development back on tax rolls It turns a liability into a community asset
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. LUSTs Leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTS): underground fuel storage tanks At service stations and other facilities Putting tanks underground reduces explosions and fires But hides leaks After 20 years, steel tanks leak and contaminate groundwater The most common source of groundwater contamination Small leaks can go undetected until people smell fuel in their tap waters
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Underground storage tank (UST) Regulations are part of RCRA and require strict monitoring for fuel supplies, tanks, and pipes Remediation of leaks must begin within 72 hours All USTs must have lining and retard corrosion Fiberglass tanks do not corrode A LUST trust fund gets money from a 0.1 cent/gallon tax on motor fuel Pays for federal activities of oversight and cleanup States must have UST programs They implement federal regulations
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Managing current toxic chemicals and wastes Production of chemicals will continue U.S. regulations cover production of hazardous wastes The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts Legislation limiting discharges into the air and water Discharge permit: must be held by any facility (including sewage) that discharges a certain volume into waterways A way to monitor who is discharging what Establishments must report all discharges covered by the TRI Renewal depends on meeting standards
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Permits do not stop discharges Standards are continually being made stricter Technologies for pollution control improve Tougher restrictions do not end all water pollution Certain amounts of wastes are still legally discharged under permits Many small amounts add up to large numbers Small businesses, homes, and farms are exempt from regulations They contribute an unknown amount of toxics to the air and water, mainly from nonpoint sources
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. RCRA The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) Cornerstone legislation designed to prevent unsafe or illegal disposal of all solid wastes on land All disposal facilities (e.g., landfills) must have permits Facilities must have safety features Old facilities are shut down and become Superfund sites Toxic wastes destined for landfills must be converted to forms that will not leach Requires “cradle-to-grave” tracking of hazardous wastes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cement kiln to destroy hazardous wastes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cradle-to-grave tracking The generator of the wastes fills out a form detailing the kinds and amounts of waste generated Transporters of the wastes are required to be permitted Transporters and the disposal site must sign a form, vouching that the amounts transferred are accurate Copies of the forms go to the EPA All phases are subject to unannounced EPA inspection The generator is responsible for any waste “lost” Ensures that generators deal only with responsible parties and curtails midnight dumping
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Reduction of accidents and accidental exposures Laws reduce the probability of accidents and minimize exposures of workers and the public Department of Transportation Regulations (DOT Regs) Specify the kinds of containers and packing used in transporting hazardous materials Intended to reduce the risks of spills, fires, and poisonous fumes if an accident occurs DOT Regs: trucks and containers must carry placards identifying hazards they transport Police and firefighters know what they are dealing with
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Worker protection: OSHA Industries used to force workers to do jobs that exposed them to hazardous materials without informing them of the dangers involved Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 Its amendments make up the hazard communication standard (worker’s right to know) Worker’s right to know: businesses, industries, and labs must make information on hazardous materials available Along with providing suitable protective equipment
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MSDS Material safety data sheets (MSDSs): give information on over 600 chemicals when they are shipped, stored, and handled Contain information on reactivity and toxicity Tell what precautions to follow when using the chemical It is the worker’s responsibility to read the information and exercise precautions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Community protection and emergency preparedness A 1984 accident at Union Carbide in India spilled 30–40 tons of methyl isocyanate An extremely toxic gas 600,000 people were exposed; 10,500 (and more) died 50,000 people had visual impairment, respiratory problems, and other injuries Union Carbide scaled back safety and alarm systems The people and doctors had no idea of how to protect or treat themselves
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA): Title III of SARA EPCRA: companies handling over 5 tons of any hazardous material must account for storage sites, feed hoppers, etc. A local emergency planning committee gets the information Gives it to fire and police departments, hospitals, etc.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Toxic chemical disaster, Bhopal
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The local planning committee Draws up scenarios for accidents involving chemicals Make a contingency plan for every case There must be an immediate and appropriate response to any kind of accident Firefighters must be trained, hospitals stocked with medicines Together with the TRI, communities can draw up a chemical profile of their local area Initiate pollution-prevention and risk-reduction activities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Toxic Substances Control Act In the past, substances were introduced without testing for side effects The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA; 1976): before a chemical can be bulk produced, manufacturers must submit a “pre-manufacturing notice” to the EPA It details potential environmental and health risks The EPA may restrict or prohibit the product The EPA must use the “least burdensome” approach Compare the costs and benefits of regulation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Concerns about TSCA There is serious concern about the effectiveness of TSCA The EPA required testing for only 200 chemicals It has developed regulations for only five The Government Accountability Office (the investigative arm of Congress) has said that TSCE is a failed program due to the stringent requirements put on the EPA’s ability to act
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals REACH: 30,000 chemicals in the European Union must be registered Each chemical has a chemical safety report (CSR) Detailing human and environmental hazards; how the chemical is used Chemicals not tested in the U.S. are included Based on the precautionary principle: industry has the responsibility for managing risks and ensuring safety The U.S. is concerned that testing costs are too high But the EU chemical industry faces the same tests
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Major hazardous-waste laws
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental justice The largest commercial hazardous-waste landfill in the U.S. is in Emelle, Alabama African Americans make up 90% of the population A Choctaw reservation was going to get a 446-acre hazardous-waste landfill The population is entirely Native American 870,000 federally subsidized housing units are within a mile of factories that emit toxic emissions Most occupants are minorities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental justice defined It is the fair treatment and involvement of all people Equal enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies regardless of race, color, etc. No group of people should bear a disproportionate share of negative environmental consequences Hazardous facilities are more likely to be located in areas where most residents are non-Caucasian and poor The rich generate wastes but don’t want them close
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Federal response President Clinton issued an executive order in 1994 focusing agency attention on environmental justice (EJ) The EPA’s EJ program has awarded millions to organizations and local governments addressing EJ issues International EJ: some developing countries import hazardous wastes from developed countries for money The Basel Convention: an international agreement banning most international toxic-waste trade The Basel Action Network publicizes and coordinates legal challenges to waste shipments
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Pollution prevention Pollution control: uses technology to prevent pollutants from entering the environment “End of the pipe” solutions Pollutants still need to be disposed of Involves regulations and control Pollution prevention: involves changing production, materials, or both so pollutants won’t be released at all For example, using a catalytic converter vs. redesigning an engine Better products with less waste
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Green chemistry Substitution: another way to avoid pollution Finding non-hazardous substitutes for hazardous substances Wet cleaning: water-based cleaning compounds instead of dry-cleaning chemicals Products can be biodegradable Reuse: cleaning up and recycling chemicals Prevention, substitution, and reuse have reduced hazardous-waste releases Public disclosure of TRI data plays a crucial role
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. You, the consumer Pollution avoidance can be applied to the individual Reducing or avoiding products containing harmful chemical Also reducing chemical by-products The average American home contains 100 lbs of household hazardous waste (HHW) Paints, stains, pesticides, motor oil, etc. They must be safely stored, used responsibly, and disposed of properly
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Green products Products that are more benign than their traditional counterparts How fast and to what degree will these products replace traditional products? It depends on how we behave as consumers Buying power can be an extremely potent force In conclusion, there are four ways to address chemical pollution Prevention, recycling, treatment, safe disposal The first free promote a minimum of waste
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 22 Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention Active Lecture Questions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ______ is the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on human and environmental health. a.Carcinocology b.Acute science c.Chronicology d.Toxicology Review Question-1
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ______ is the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on human and environmental health. a.Carcinocology b.Acute science c.Chronicology d.Toxicology Review Question-1 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Environmental Protection Agency categorizes substances on the basis of which of the following properties? a.ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity b.poison, explosiveness, ignitability, and flammability c.ignitability, reactivity, chronic, acute d.carcinogenic, chronic, acute, toxicity Review Question-2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Environmental Protection Agency categorizes substances on the basis of which of the following properties? a.ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity b.poison, explosiveness, ignitability, and flammability c.ignitability, reactivity, chronic, acute d.carcinogenic, chronic, acute, toxicity Review Question-2 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exposure of animals to ______, found in many reusable beverage containers, contributes to many problems, including obesity, diabetes, infertility, and cancer. a.BSA b.BPA c.PCBs d.CFCs Review Question-3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exposure of animals to ______, found in many reusable beverage containers, contributes to many problems, including obesity, diabetes, infertility, and cancer. a.BSA b.BPA c.PCBs d.CFCs Review Question-3 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Midnight dumping of hazardous wastes and abandoning properties where wastes are stored has led to locations called a.landfills. b.orphan sites. c.accidental sites. d.deep well injection sites. Review Question-4
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Midnight dumping of hazardous wastes and abandoning properties where wastes are stored has led to locations called a.landfills. b.orphan sites. c.accidental sites. d.deep well injection sites. Review Question-4 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ______ are “abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.” a.Red zones b.Underground brown sites c.Brownfields d.Yellowfields Review Question-5
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ______ are “abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.” a.Red zones b.Underground brown sites c.Brownfields d.Yellowfields Review Question-5 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. True or False: According to Fig. 22-1, harmful effects as a result of the exposure to toxic pollutants are slight when the concentration of the pollutant is high and the time of exposure is low. a.True b.False Interpreting Graphs and Data-1
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. True or False: According to Fig. 22-1, harmful effects as a result of the exposure to toxic pollutants are slight when the concentration of the pollutant is high and the time of exposure is low. a.True b.False Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. According to Fig. 22-4, regarding the general trend of toxics release, a.on-site disposal has increased steadily from 1988 to b.off-site disposal has increased steadily from 1988 to c.on-site disposal has decreased steadily from 1988 to d.all of the above. Interpreting Graphs and Data-2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. According to Fig. 22-4, regarding the general trend of toxics release, a.on-site disposal has increased steadily from 1988 to b.off-site disposal has increased steadily from 1988 to c.on-site disposal has decreased steadily from 1988 to d.all of the above. Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. True or False: Most of the “dirty dozen” persistent organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons. a.True b.False Thinking Environmentally-1
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. True or False: Most of the “dirty dozen” persistent organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons. a.True b.False Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following requires manufacturers to submit a “pre-manufacturing notice” to the EPA before manufacturing a new chemical in bulk? a.the Toxic Substances Control Act b.the Right-to-Know Act c.the Underground Storage Tank Act d.Superfund Thinking Environmentally-2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following requires manufacturers to submit a “pre-manufacturing notice” to the EPA before manufacturing a new chemical in bulk? a.the Toxic Substances Control Act b. the Right-to-Know Act c.the Underground Storage Tank Act d.Superfund Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer
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