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© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1 Chapter 19: Checks and Banking in the Digital Age

2 2 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Learning Objectives What type of check does a bank agree in advance to accept when the check is presented for payment? When may a bank property dishonor a customer’s check without liability to the customer? What duties does the UCC impose on a bank’s customers with regard to forged and altered checks? What are the consequences if a customer is negligent in performing those duties? What are the four most common types of electronic fund transfers? What laws apply to e-money transactions and online banking services?

3 3 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Cashier’s Checks Cashier’s Check—bank is both drawer and drawee. Case 19.1 MidAmerica Bank, FSB v. Charter One Bank. Bank must pay cashier’s check over the drawee’s stop payment order which is wrongful under UCC

4 4 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Traveler’s Checks and Certified Checks Traveler’s Check—payable on demand, payable by a financial institution, designated as a traveler’s check. Certified Checks—accepted in writing by drawee bank.

5 5 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Bank-Customer Relationship Creditor-Debtor: Bank owes money to customer and must honor customer’s checks. Agency Relationship: Bank must pay customer’s checks and collect for customer if she deposits checks. Contractual Relationship: specific rights and duties depend on the terms of the transaction.

6 6 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Bank’s Duty to Honor Checks Banks that wrongfully dishonor customer’s checks are liable for actual damages only. Overdrafts: bank’s choice to honor or not, then hold customer liable for amount. Postdated Checks: Bank can pay unless notified in time to act on it.

7 7 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Bank’s Duty to Honor Checks Stale Checks: after 6 months, it is bank’s choice whether to honor or not. Stop-Payment Orders: –Customer can’t stop certified checks and must give bank enough time to act. –Oral Stop Payment = 14 days, Written = 6 months. –Bank’s Liability for Wrongful Payment: Bank is obligated to recredit account, plus all ‘bounced’ costs. –Customer's Liability for Wrongful S.P. Order: Must have valid legal ground, but is still liable to payee for damages.

8 8 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Bank’s Duty to Honor Checks Death or Incompetence of a Customer: –Bank can pay until it knows and can pay checks drawn before death or incompetence 10 days after it knows - unless notified by a family member or executor.

9 9 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Checks Bearing Forged Drawers’ Signatures General Rule: forged signature has no legal effect, and bank must recredit customer’s account. Customer Negligence: if customer substantially contributes to forgery, bank will not have to recredit the account. Case 19.2 Auto-Owners Insurance Co. v. Bank One. Bank One did not breach a duty to Auto-Owners and did not substantially contribute to the loss when it opened the account.

10 10 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Checks Bearing Forged Drawers’ Signatures Customer Negligence (cont’d) –Timely Examination of Bank Statements Required. Customer has a duty to promptly examine statements and report any forgeries or alterations, usually within 30 days. –Consequences of Failing to Detect Forgeries. Bank is not liable for all forged checks it pays prior to the notification. When the Bank is Also Negligent. –Bank fails to exercise ordinary care, in keeping with established banking standards. –Regardless of bank’s care, UCC places absolute time limit on liability for forged check: ONE YEAR.

11 11 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Checks Bearing Forged Indorsements Payment on a Forged Indorsement – if not to customer’s order, bank must re- credit unless customer is negligent before or after forgery. –Before forgery: if large gaps or incompleteness. –After forgery: customer must notify bank (i) within 3 days after forged items made available to customer, or (ii) if a series of forgeries, within 30 days of receipt of either the bank statement or canceled checks.

12 12 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Checks Bearing Forged Indorsements Bank may recover from the person it paid (not cashier, teller, or certified checks) if Warranty. Presenter did not have Good Title because of the forged indorsement.

13 13 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Altered Checks Altered Checks. –Bank has implied duty to inspect checks. –Customer Negligence shifts loss to customer if bank pays in good faith without notice. –Bank may recover from other parties.

14 14 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Traditional Collection Process Availability Schedule for Deposited Checks. –Local checks, 1 day availability. –Non-local checks, not more than 5 days. Designations of Banks in Process.  –Depositary Bank: first bank to receive payment. –Payor Bank: on which check is drawn. –Intermediary Bank: other banks in collection chain.

15 15 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Traditional Collection Process Local checks: one business day from the date of deposit. Non-local checks: five business days from the date of deposit. Some deposits must be available the next business day. Deposits made in non-proprietary ATMs: 5 business days. Some exceptions for new-customer deposits and large deposits.

16 16 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Traditional Collection Process

17 17 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Traditional Collection Process Bank must present check to be paid on or before midnight of the next day following receipt. “Deferred posting” bank can set e.g., 2:00 pm as cutoff hour. Bank can dishonor the check by the opening of the second banking day following its receipt or check is considered paid.

18 18 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Traditional Collection Process Each bank in the collection process must pass the check on before midnight of the next banking day following its receipt. Payor bank must dishonor or return it by midnight on the next banking day following receipt, or the payor bank is accountable for the face amount of the check. Case 19.3 Bank One, N.A. v. Dunn. Bank was not liable to its customer for delay in determining whether the check was counterfeit.

19 19 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. How the Federal Reserve System Clears Checks Fed acts as a Clearinghouse. Electronic Check Presentment. –Much faster in contrast to manual check processing. –Check may not be physically moved, but encoded information sent by computer. –Those parties who encode and notify make the same warranties as if the check were sent physically

20 20 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Electronic Fund Transfers Types of EFT Systems. –ATMs. –Point-of-Sale systems. –Direct deposits and withdrawals. –Internet Payment Systems. Consumer Fund Transfers: governed by Electronic Fund Transfer Act of –Loss limited to $ Commercial Fund Transfers: governed by Article 4A of the UCC.

21 21 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. E-Money and Online Banking Digital Cash (e-money) in smart cards. Online Banking Services. –Online contract between bank and customer governs terms. –Regulatory Compliance. Privacy Protection. –Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986). –Consumer Financial Data: Gramm-Leach- Bliley Act (1999).


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