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Do Now read page 43-44 Please open your books to show your half life graphs

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Today’s lesson Use the term half-life in simple calculations, including the use of information in tables or decay curves. Give and explain examples of practical applications of isotopes. Title Half-life questions

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½ - life This is the time it takes for half the nuclei present in any given sample to decay half-life (t ½ ) Number of nuclei undecayed time A graph of the count rate against time will be the same shape

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Different ½ - lives Different isotopes have different half-lives The ½-life could be a few milliseconds or 5000 million years!half life applethalf life applet half-life (t ½ ) Number of nuclei undecayed time

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Examples A sample of a radioactive isotope of half life 2 hours has a count rate of 30 000 counts per second. What will the count rate be after 8 hours?

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Examples

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Activity The activity of a radioactive source is equal to the number of decays per second. Activity is measured in bequerels (Bq) 1 becquerel = 1 decay per second Half life Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896

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Question 1 At 10am in the morning a radioactive sample contains 80g of a radioactive isotope. If the isotope has a half- life of 20 minutes calculate the mass of the isotope remaining at 11am. 10am to 11am = 60 minutes = 3 x 20 minutes = 3 half-lives mass of isotope = ½ x ½ x ½ x 80g mass at 11 am = 10g

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Question 2 Calculate the half-life of the radioactive isotope in a source if its mass decreases from 24g to 6g over a period of 60 days. 24g x ½ = 12g 12g x ½ = 6g therefore TWO half-lives occur in 60 days half-life = 30 days

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Example 2 – The decay of source Z Source Z decays with a half-life of three hours. At 9 am the source has an activity of 16000 Bq The activity halves every three hours. TimeActivity (Bq) 9 am 12 noon 3 pm 6 pm 9 pm midnight 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 16000 When will the activity have fallen to 125 Bq? 6 am

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Example 3 – The decay of isotope X Isotope X decays to Isotope Y with a half- life of 2 hours. At 2 pm there are 6400 nuclei of isotope X. TimeNuclei of X Nuclei of Y 2 pm 4 pm 6 pm 8 pm 10 pm midnight 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 6200 6000 5600 4800 3200 0 When will the nuclei of isotope X fallen to 25?6 am

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Question 3 A radioactive source has a half-life of 3 hours. At 8 am it has an activity of 600 Bq. What will be its activity at 2 pm? at 8 am activity = 600 Bq 2 pm is 6 hours later this is 2 half-lives later therefore the activity will halve twice that is: 600 300 150 activity at 2 pm = 150 Bq

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Question 4 – The decay of substance P Substance P decays to substance Q with a half-life of 15 minutes. At 9 am there are 1280 nuclei of substance P. Complete the table. TimeNuclei of X Nuclei of Y 9 am 9:15 9:30 9:45 10 am 10:15 40 80 160 320 640 1280 1240 1200 1120 960 640 0 How many nuclei of substance X will be left at 11 am?

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Question 5 A sample contains 8 billion nuclei of hydrogen 3 atoms. Hydrogen 3 has a half-life of 12 years. How many nuclei should remain after a period 48 years? 48 years = 4 x 12 years = FOUR half-lives nuclei left = ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x 8 billion nuclei left = 500 million

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Experiment Dicium 25 You need your graphs

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Question 7 The mass of a radioactive substance over a 8 hour period is shown in the table below. Draw a graph of mass against time and use it to determine the half-life of the substance. Time (hours) 012345678 Mass (g)6504933732832141631239371 The half-life should be about 2 hours:

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Finding half-life from a graph half-life The half-life in this example is about 30 seconds. A more accurate value can be obtained be repeating this method for a other initial nuclei numbers and then taking an average.

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Question 6 Estimate the half-life of the substance whose decay graph is shown opposite. half-life

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Do Now Copy and complete : The ________ of a radioactive substance is the average time taken for half of the _______of the substance to decay. It is also equal to the average time taken for the ________ of the substance to halve. The half-life of carbon 14 is about _______ years. If today a sample of carbon 14 has an activity of 3400 Bq then in 5600 years time this should have fallen to ______ Bq. 11200 years later the activity should have fallen to ____ Bq. The number of carbon 14 nuclei would have also decreased by ______ times. eighthalf-life5600425activity1700 WORD & NUMBER SELECTION: nuclei eight half-life 5600 425 activity 1700 nuclei

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Revision Simulations Half-LifeHalf-Life - S-Cool section on half-life and uses of radioactivity including an on- screen half-life calculation and an animation showing thickness control. BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Detecting radiation Natural sources of background radiation Artificial radiation Half life Alpha DecayAlpha Decay - PhET - Watch alpha particles escape from a Polonium nucleus, causing radioactive alpha decay. See how random decay times relate to the half life.

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Title Uses of radioactive isotopes

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Smoke detection Uses

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Thickness control

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Used as Tracers

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Killing microbes

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Checking welds

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Used as TracersTracers

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Carbon dating – write notes using the book page 265

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Summary sheet

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“Can you………?”

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Test! Thursday 27 th September 2012

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Can you answer the questions on pages 261 and 265?

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