Different concept of time East African Swahili time runs from dawn to dusk, rather than midnight to midday. 7am and 7pm are therefore both one o'clock while midnight and midday are six o'clock. Words such as asubuhi 'morning', jioni 'evening' and usiku 'night' can be used to demarcate periods of the day, for example: saa moja asubuhi ('hour one morning') 7:00 a.m. saa tisa usiku ('hour nine night') 3:00 a.m. saa mbili usiku ('hour two evening') 8:00 p.m.
Counter-examples Colors: You cannot identify colors which your language does not have a name for. A reversed Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis The physical and socio-cultural environment determines the distinctions that the language develops.
The weak form of the hypothesis Linguistic relativity The categories provided by a language may make it easier to draw certain conceptual distinctions.
Linguistic categories and culture Misconceptions: Simple societies cannot have complex grammars. Simple societies possess only primitive languages.
Linguistic categories and culture The classification of linguistic categories is the reflection of culture. Language encodes culture Examples: Tahitians: ‘sickness’=‘sadness’ An attack from evil spirits
Gender in noun German Der Banhoff, der Wagen Die Luft, die Dame Das Boot, das Jahr
Discourse pattern in culture The pattern of communication is different from one culture to another. How we talk American culture vs. Chinese culture
Politeness in culture Positive politeness Express social solidarity and minimize social distance Emphasize shared attitudes and values On the first name (FN) basis Negative politeness Express oneself appropriately in terms of social distance and respect status differences On the title-last name (TLN) basis
Linguistic politeness in different cultures Refusing an invitation How to get enough food in Taiwan