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Why We Sleep: Rest and Activity are the Steps of Progress

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Presentation on theme: "Why We Sleep: Rest and Activity are the Steps of Progress"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why We Sleep: Rest and Activity are the Steps of Progress
You and Your Brain Why We Sleep: Rest and Activity are the Steps of Progress 4/14/2017

2 Timeline: 7:45 – 9:00 Sun Monday Tuesday Wed Thursday Friday Sat Sept 11: Paradigms 13: Brain Develop-ment Mongolia Conference Yom Kippur 27: Sleeping 28: TM and TC Oct 2: Science and Pseudoscience 4: Other Meditations 9: Cosmic Consciousness Drfredtravis.com for copy of lecture power points

3 Available at Amazon for the Kindle.
Plus, I have copies for sale.

4 Wholeness Sleeping and dreaming repair the brain and are essential maintain optimal health and uphold growth towards enlightenment. Rest and activity are the steps of progress.

5 Adenosine Receptors: The cells’ accountant

6 Rhythms in Sleep Most of the organisms living on earth show 24 hour circadian rhythms that are endogenously controlled by biological clocks. In mammals these rhythms are generated by the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus or SCN of the hypothalamus.

7 Rhythms in Sleep

8 Rhythms in Sleep During the daytime the SCN neurons fire rapidly but at night they fire very slowly. This was a single rat neuron from the SNC maintaining a basic circadian rhythm in a dish.

9 Rhythms in Sleep

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11 Rhythms: Pineal Gland The SCN takes the information on the lengths of the day and night from the retina, interprets it, and passes it on to the pineal gland, a tiny structure shaped like a pine cone and located in the center of the brain.

12 Rhythms: Pineal Gland In response, the pineal secretes the hormone melatonin. Secretion of melatonin peaks at night and ebbs during the day and its presence provides information about night-length.

13 Rhythms: Pineal Gland The pineal gland also plays an important role in animals in setting seasonal rhythms.

14 The Pineal Gland

15 Two Process Model of Sleep
Sleep pressure—how long since you have slept (“adenosine-accountant”). Circadian rhythms

16 Light Sensitive Circadian rhythms (24-hour cycles) in
physiological processes of all mammals Greater Drowsiness Midnight 6 AM Noon 6 PM Midnight

17 Overlay of Vehicle Accident Data, Performance Errors, and Circadian Rhythm
This build of slides demonstrates the similarity in the temporal distribution of meter-reading errors and auto accidents and correlates the indirect relationship that poor function has to the maximum peaks of the circadian rhythm (times of greatest sleepiness). At the maximum peak of sleepiness (12 AM-7 AM; 1 PM-4 PM), errors and accident rates are at their highest At the minimum troughs of sleepiness (7 AM-11 AM; and 5 PM-11 PM), function is higher and errors and accidents occur less frequently Midnight 6 AM Noon 6 PM

18 Normal Sleep Cycles in Young Adults (Sleep/Dream)
REM Stage NREM 4 3 2 1 REM AWAKE Sleep Stages Adapted from Berger RJ. The sleep and dream cycle. In: Kales A, ed. Sleep Physiology & Pathology: A Symposium. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott; Used by permission of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Breakdown of total time at each stage Stage 1: 5% Stage 2: 50% Stages 3, 4: 20% REM: 20%-25% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours of Sleep Adapted from Berger RJ. The sleep and dream cycle. In: Kales A, ed. Sleep Physiology & Pathology: A Symposium. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott; 1969.

19 Brain Stem Nuclei Dreaming Sleep

20 Brain Blood Flow during Sleep
1st CEO 1 2nd Thalamus 2 You wake up in reverse—thalamus first and then the CEO, called sleep inertia.

21 Blood Flow and Dreaming (REM)
Talk about meaning during dreams Desseilles et al, Consciousness and Cognition

22 Sleeping and Dreaming Repairs the Brain
Replenish brain energy resources (adenosine triphosphate) and intracellular house-keeping—replace neurotransmitter vesicles. Conduct neural plasticity—maintain appropriate connections and eliminate accidental connections. 1. During sleep, our brain busily processes the information we have learned during the day. 2. Sleep makes memories stronger. It weeds out irrelevant details and background information so that only the important pieces remain.

23 How Much Sleep Do I Need? Ursin, et al. (2005) Sleep duration, subjective sleep need, and sleep habits in 8860 adults. Sleep. 28,(10),

24 If you don’t get enough sleep…

25 Days on Experimental Schedule
Restricting Sleep-- Reduced Vigilance 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Better Vigilance Level The answer is that we CAN get by with less than 8 hours of sleep per day, but we will pay a penalty for it. This slide shows mental performance across 8 days on various nightly sleep schedules. If you spend 9 hrs in bed, you will obtain about 8 hours of sleep. The yellow squares show that this amount of sleep sustains mental performance. If you obtain just 1 hour less sleep per night, about 7 hours of sleep per night, your mental performance falls off slightly almost immediately, and the difference is clearly obvious after about 5 days. Obtaining only 5 hours of sleep per night results in immediate and fairly substantial mental performance deficits. These deficits level off after about 5 days, but performance remains well below the 8-hour level. Restricting sleep to 3 hours per night causes immediate and devastating performance deficits. These deficits continue to mount across nights. By a 7th night of sleep restricted to 3 hours, mental performance is reduced to about 30% of well rested levels. Worse Base line Days on Experimental Schedule

26 Effect of Fatigue on Medical Students
JAMA 2005 Heavy-call residents (every 3rd night) vs low-call residents who drank three beers (BAC level .08)

27 Similar impairments in
Sustained attention Vigilance Performance on a simulated driving test. Anyone working > 70 hrs/week functions at the level of being legally drunk (BAC = .08).

28 Fatigue Makes Experiences More Intense
Rested 36-hour Sleep Dep. Amygdala 60% more active and 3 times greater area when tired. Yoo et al. (2007) The human emotional brain without sleep -- a prefrontal amygdale disconnect.Current Biology, Vol. 17, No. 20, R877-R878.

29 Main Point Sleep involves active processes of repairing brain circuits after a day of activity. Dreaming supports this through auto-activation leading to structured forgetting. Brain circuits created during the day are erased if they are not deep. Rest and activity are the steps of progress during waking and during sleeping and dreaming.

30 How to get good sleep, part 1
Keep a regular schedule. Be consistent with sleep times, including weekends. Exercise regularly. Keep a regular schedule. It helps you fall asleep more easily, have better sleep quality, and feel more rested after sleep. Be consistent with sleep times, including weekends. Exercise regularly. (It reduces stress and lengthens the time of deep sleep.) But don't exercise right before bedtime.

31 How to get good sleep, part 2
Eliminate caffeine and, of course, alcohol and nicotine. Eliminate TV and computer use later in the evening. Don't use your time in bed to plan the next day. Eliminate caffeine and, of course, alcohol and nicotine. Eliminate TV and computer use later in the evening. Don't use your time in bed to plan the next day. Do this earlier in the day. If you are not getting enough sleep, go to bed one or two hours earlier than usual.

32 How to get good sleep, part 3
Switch off lights. To get more enough sleep, go to bed 15 minutes earlier every 3rd-4th day. When you wake in the night, don't panic and worry that you aren't getting enough rest. It's natural, so just take it easy and enjoy your rest. Switch off lights. Eliminate as much light from the bedroom as possible. Don't alter your sleep schedule by more than an hour. When you wake in the night, don't panic and worry that you aren't getting enough rest. It's natural, so just take it easy and enjoy your rest.

33 The Three Doshas in the Rhythm of Day and Night
Examples: Kapha morning body is still lethargic, slow Pitta midday maximum generation of warmth, most powerful time of the digestive fire - Agni   Vata afternoon psychological performance is geatest, clear thinking Kapha evening slowing down, more relaxed body and mind, desire for sleep Pitta night optimum period of mental and physical regeneration, heat production during sleep Vata night increased dream activity near morning, activation of the eliminative functions, increased mental activity

34 Group Exercise Witnessing sleep is a marker of Cosmic Consciousness. What function does sleep play in Cosmic Consciousness?

35 Maharishi on Sleep Sleep is the blessing of God, Feel love of God,
Lie in the showers of His blessing. Let your heart melt in the love of God. Sleep in the thought of God and in the love. It is not necessary to say anything, But feeling of God is of maximum value. The love flows. Sleep is only at the surface. Sleep in the warmth of Divine Grace Without any words -- only this feeling. Maharishi, 1962

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37 Cerebral Blood Flow during Waking, Dreaming and Sleeping
Braun et al, 1997, Brain

38 Computer analogy of sleep and dreaming
During the day, store data in RAM. During NREM sleep, write data to disk. During dreaming REM, disk defragmentation. Repeat the write-and-defragment cycle until all data is written to the disk and your RAM is clear and ready for a new day of learning. At waking up, you reboot the computer. If you reboot early with the use of an alarm clock, you often leave your disk fragmented.

39 Circadian Rhythms and Performance Errors
4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 11,000 Sweden N = 74,927 No. of Errors Figure represents the distribution of 75,000 meter-reading errors displayed as a function of time. These data were collected in Swedish gas works and assessed the 24-hour distribution of 75,000 meter-reading errors during a 20-year period. Notice the familiar 2-peak, or bimodal, pattern of these errors: Major peak occurs between 2 AM and 4 AM Minor peak occurs between 2 PM and 4 PM Midnight 6 AM Noon 6 PM Mitler MM, et al. Sleep

40 Circadian Rhythms and Vehicle Accident Data
International Data N = 6052 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 No. of Accidents Distribution of 6052 single-vehicle accidents displayed as a function of time of day. These accidents were judged by investigators to be attributable to “falling asleep at the wheel.” Notice the familiar 2-peak, or bimodal, pattern of the accident rate over time: Major peak occurs between 12 AM and 7 AM (especially pronounced between 1 AM and 4 AM) Minor peak occurs between 1 PM and 4 PM These data combine population samples from: Israel: n = 390 Texas: n = 4994 New York: n = 668 Midnight 6 AM Noon 6 PM Midnight Mitler MM, et al. Sleep

41 Fatigue Sleep Deprived Rested

42 Sleep Effects Day 2 Recall
Red: Sleep deprived Blue: Full sleep

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44 National Sleep Foundation Poll in 2000
How Much Sleep Do I Need? Newborns : 16 to 18 hours Age 1 : 13 to 14 hours Teenagers : > 9 ½ hours Adults : 8 hours and 20 minutes Seniors : 8 hours National Sleep Foundation Poll in 2000 33% adult Americans < 6.5 hours per night 45% will sleep less to accomplish more


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