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A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Self Efficacy as a framework to engage the disengaged: Strategic Approaches 15 th March 2010. (9.30 to 12.00)

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Presentation on theme: "A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Self Efficacy as a framework to engage the disengaged: Strategic Approaches 15 th March 2010. (9.30 to 12.00)"— Presentation transcript:

1 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Self Efficacy as a framework to engage the disengaged: Strategic Approaches 15 th March (9.30 to 12.00)

2 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) So what IS disengagement?

3 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Dimensions of disengagement Not in: education employment training NEET

4 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Manifestations of disengagement Flight:Absent and disconnected: - irregular, truancy, dropout Fight:Present, but absent - disruptive, destructive, - behavioural problems

5 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 1.Impact of educational structure: Comprehensive vs. selective 2.Effect of inclusion and exclusion: segregation may exacerbate disengagement. 3. Disengagement from ‘prescribed’ modes of career development: boredom, distraction, disconnect from existing attitudes to work, unchallenged.

6 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 4. Socio-economic and community factors Home background and area of residence were seen as being key influences on disengagement. For example, in the UK socio-economic status was seen as being a stronger predictor of achievement than early attainment. In five of the countries, minority ethnic groups were noted as being over-represented in the disengaged group – this was evident in the Netherlands, Austria, Norway, Spain and England.

7 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 5.Family environment parents do not value school. condone non-attendance. have low or too high expectations. family events: such as bereavement, divorce, or new stepfamily, can also have an impact.

8 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 6.Pupil factors Lack of social skills. Not attending school, for example, due to bullying. Friends beyond school resulting in non-attendance and disengagement. Influence from truanting peers. Lack of academic ability. Having special educational needs. Substance misuse. Previous negative experiences of school. Students who have to repeat a school year or those who have to change from a higher to lower level of education.

9 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 7. Curriculum factors The perceived irrelevance of the curriculum to life. Divisions between vocational and academic education resulting in pupils becoming ‘locked’ into courses inappropriate to meeting their learning needs. Inappropriate exam and assessment procedures. Reduced time for ‘pastoral’ provision because of the pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum. Inappropriate teaching methods with schools focusing on curriculum and subject content rather than on learners.

10 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 8. Influence of vocational education: Vocational qualifications do not have parity of esteem with academic qualifications. There is a danger of seeing vocational education as the ‘solution’ to disengagement. Greater focus is required on person-centered approaches to employment rather than providing a vocational ‘alternative’.

11 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) “Established models, associated with outcome-driven thinking based on lists of personality traits and job factors, or ideas based on linear development through education to a lifetime career, may be useful for some but are unlikely to engage all young people.” Reid, 2008.

12 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): Key Concepts Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory. SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio-economic influences, to shape life paths. SCT concepts are structured around the central theme that people’s beliefs in their personal efficacy to manage life’s demands affect their psychological well-being, their accomplishments and the direction their lives take. SCT has been gaining support as a framework for furthering our understanding of the career development process.

13 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Three Social Cognitive Mechanisms Self Efficacy Outcome Expectations Goal Setting...are particularly relevant to understanding career development

14 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 2. Outcome Expectations 3. Goal Setting Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imagined outcome Projected anticipation Future orientation Symbolically represent future outcomes

15 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory Self-efficacy Beliefs: Beliefs about one’s ability to be successful in the performance of a task Self-referent thought influences behaviour Quality of self efficacy beliefs influence whether: - behaviour will be initiated - how much energy will be expended - maintenance of this behaviour in the face of obstacles

16 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on self efficacy beliefs Performance Accomplishments (Success Experiences) Actual performance on a task. Accomplishments that are success experiences move the individual closer to mastery experiences. Success experiences of sub units of a task move the individual onto the unit and so on until the entire task is successfully performed. A success experience contributes to self-efficacy only when the individual is able to attribute the reason for success to personal effort. “I got one right... Now let me try the next.”

17 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on self efficacy beliefs Vicarious Experience Observation of a social role model Promotes a similar belief in oneself and influences personal self-efficacy for that task The more similar to oneself the more powerful is the vicarious experience The greater the real or assumed similarity of the model to the observer, the powerful is the model’s success or failure on the observer’s self-efficacy The failure of important role models causes a decline in self-efficacy for that task “If she can do it... Maybe I can too.”

18 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on self efficacy beliefs Verbal Persuasion The nature of verbal persuasion for a task affects the quality of self- efficacy the person develops for that task Encouragement from someone else that they possess the capabilities to be successful at a particular task Repeated verbal feedback that questions a person’s capabilities could lead to: - Avoidance of that activity - Giving up in the face of barriers - Weak engagement with the task Undermines motivation and promotes disbelief in one's capabilities “She told me I can do it... She believes in me.”

19 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory to affect the quality of Self Efficacy beliefs Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion interact reciprocally I tried and it worked! If she can do it let me try...! She told me I can do it...!

20 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 2. Outcome Expectations 3. Goal Setting Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imagined outcome Projected anticipation Future orientation Symbolically represent future outcomes

21 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory Outcome Expectations Expectation that a certain consequence would result from a certain action Estimation of the quality of the outcome Are only imagined and notional outcomes Particularly relevant in an environment where the linkage between effort and outcome are imperfect A person may not invest effort in an activity for which she has a high potential, if the outcome expectation for that activity is negative

22 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Outcome Expectations: Implications for career development If outcome expected does not match projected anticipation or imagined outcome, may not engage with the process. If a service or a scheme is not congruent with what the person thinks he/she deserves, may not value the scheme Examples: - going against the common belief - scepticism - loss of support from others if that action is taken - loss of prestige - gender incongruence

23 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 2. Outcome Expectations 3. Goal Setting Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imagined outcome Projected anticipation Future orientation Symbolically represent future outcomes

24 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory Goal Setting Capacity to symbolically represent and conceptualise future effects of present actions. Engagement in an activity that has an effect in the future Commitment to effecting a certain outcome Determination to reach a target Requires: - ability to react in a self-evaluative manner to own behaviour - internal standards of performance Such goals play a self-regulatory function that calls for sustained action over a period of time

25 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory: Impact and Relevance Merely believing does actually record success Expectation alone will not produce the desired outcome Must be mindful of the individual’s ability levels

26 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social cognitive framework: Recognising risk for disengagement Performance Accomplishments Are there opportunities for ‘small successes’? Are there more failures than successes? Vicarious Experience What kind of role models are available? Is there a close similarity between the role model and the young person?

27 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social cognitive signs of risk for disengagement Verbal Persuasion Cajoling, pleading, enticing? Challenging? Promoting expression of personal potentials? Reward oriented or promotion of self-mediation? Outcome Expectations Is there a perception that the service or scheme is congruent with what the person thinks he/she deserves? Is outcome expectation self-mediated? Or system- dependant?

28 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social cognitive signs of risk for disengagement Goal Setting and Planning Is there an orientation to how actions of the present affect outcomes in the future? Is future orientation affected by difficulties of the present? Is there an orientation to ‘starting small’ or ‘making it big’?

29 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Tackling disengagement Curative Preventative focused on routes. back into learning. enabling appropriate targeting of resources. evaluation of initiatives. strengthen transition stages. bridge gap between vocational and academic education. promote self-efficacy. strenghten self-mediation. realistic goal setting. promote future orienation.

30 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Almost eight months after Time 3 of this study, a young man visited the researcher. Full of confidence he walked into the researcher’s office and said that he had attended a six month course on screen printing and now had a regular job. Then, rather shyly he said had something to give the researcher. He drew a soiled envelope from his pocket and said “I received my first salary today. I want you to use this to help someone else in the way you helped me.” Inside the envelope was a fifty rupee note. A large sum of money for a boy from his background. Moved, but curious I asked him which of the intervention groups he had belonged to. The boy looked up and said, “The group where we learned to think differently.” Outcomes of a study on the promotion of self-efficacy for career development

31 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Thank you!

32 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Theory to Practice Group 1:Performance accomplishment and career development Group 2:Vicarious experience and career development Group 3: Verbal persuasion and career development Group 4: Outcome expectations and career development Group 5: Goal setting and career development 30 minutes for small group discussions 30 minutes for short presentation.

33 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Thank you!

34 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Sources Kendall, S. and Kinder, K. (2005). Reclaiming Those Disengaged from Education and Learning: a European Perspective. Slough: NFER. (Austria, England, Belgium Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and Wales). Enhancing career development: The role of community-based career guidance for disengaged adults (2005) National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). Helena Kasurinen and Mika Launikari (2009) Career Guidance for Youth-at-risk in Finland It’s Crunch Time: Raising youth engagement and attainment (2007) Australian Industry Group.


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