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APPROACHES TO IRELAND Geoffrey Keating. CLIMATE  Average summer temperature 16 C  Average winter temperature 6 C.

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Presentation on theme: "APPROACHES TO IRELAND Geoffrey Keating. CLIMATE  Average summer temperature 16 C  Average winter temperature 6 C."— Presentation transcript:

1 APPROACHES TO IRELAND Geoffrey Keating

2

3 CLIMATE  Average summer temperature 16 C  Average winter temperature 6 C

4 CLIMATE  EMERALD ISLE  SKYSCAPE  GRASS, COWS, MILK, BUTTER  POTATOES

5 PEOPLE - IN  CELTS  VIKINGS  NORMANS  ENGLISH/SCOTS  POLES, LITHUANIUANS, LATVIANS, NIGERIANS, CHINESE …………

6 PEOPLE - OUT  Irish monks in Europe 6 th & 7 th c.  Irish missionaries 19 th c.  Irish in Britain, America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina  Resurgence of emigration late 20 th c.

7 PEOPLE  1841 – 8.2 m  1851 – 6.5 m  1901 – 3.2 m  1961 – 2.8 m  2006 – 4.2 m (Great Irish Famine )

8 DYNAMIC TENSIONS  RELIGION  LANGUAGE  IDENTITY/NATIONALITY  TRADITION and MODERNITY

9 RELIGION  SAINT PATRICK (5 th c.) dynamic impact of Christianity on Gaelic civilisation in literature and art dynamic impact of Christianity on Gaelic civilisation in literature and art  Catholics and Protestants

10 IRELAND vs ENGLAND military control and resistance (Castles, barracks) “civilisation” of Ireland suppression of Catholicism (until 1829) and imposition of State church (until 1869) suppression of language

11 LITERATURE Privileged position of poets and scholars in Gaelic society Monastic tradition: “Island of Saints and Scholars” Language as a weapon Loss of language  SWIFT  G.B. SHAW n  WILDE  W.B. YEATS n  BECKETT n  HEANEY n

12 MUSIC  Ancient musical tradition  Strong folk tradition  Rebellion and subversion  America – a two-way influence  U2, Cranberries, The Corrs  Enya  Riverdance

13 Tradition vs Modernity  Preservation of language, religion and traditional culture  Resistance to English and American influences vs  Embrace of modernity (especially from 1960s)  Joyce and Beckett  Globalisation

14 WOMEN  Traditional role  1960s women’s movement  1970s role of European Union  1985 legalisation of contraception  1996 divorce referendum  1990 election of President Robinson  1997 election of President McAleese

15 Ireland and Bulgaria  Sense of ancient civilisation  Literacy and monastic tradition  Foreign political and cultural domination  Language and religion  19 th century nationalism  Ideology  Migration and demographic decline  Role of European Union


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