Presentation on theme: "Changing Values HGS 12 Viewpoints (unit 4) notes Family Life: Decline or transformation?"— Presentation transcript:
Changing Values HGS 12 Viewpoints (unit 4) notes Family Life: Decline or transformation?
Early Observers of Social Change Industrialism caused shift away from extended family to nuclear family Changed roles from: Centre of Production Centre of Consumption Lost its economic primacy Influence was eroded
Evidence of family decline? Decreasing fertility rates Smaller family sizes Increased rates of divorce Family breakdown Greater sexual permissiveness Expanded role of the state in child care
Temporary reversal of trends in Western Society – Post World War II Rates of marriage reached an all time high Fertility rates rose Divorce rates leveled off Number of married women in the labor force declined. Former trends resume in the 1960s
Other observers of Social Change say “No” They caution against applying Western models to the Third World Effects of urbanization vary greatly from region to region Social class, culture, and ethnic background – huge influence Family life not in decline but in a state of change: A high incidence of remarriage The frequency of reconstituted families High levels of satisfaction with remarriage
Status of Women – most notable change Strong women’s movement developed in the 1960s Feminists campaigned for prevention of discrimination based on gender They sought equal pay for equal work More liberal divorce laws Reproductive choice Affirmative action
Status of Women – Progress? Very positive in the industrialized world Public consciousness – significant gain Change of language – gender bias Revelations of long hidden violence against women More positive portrayals of women in the mass media Very little progress – women continued to be marginalized.
Secularism Concern with worldly affairs as opposed to spiritual matters Widespread belief (social theorists) – secularism was a natural outgrowth of urbanization Industrial society + scientific rationalism decline in religion Evidence : Church attendance plummeted Difficulty recruiting clergy Government assuming traditionally religious roles Increased drug and alcohol abuse Increasing crime rates Increasing acceptance of obscenity and profanity in popular culture
Religion in society – Change or Decline? Other social theorists argued that: Religion experienced short-term decline – religious cults, the practice of meditation and fascination with Eastern mysticism – evidence of change rather than decline Urbanization had caused religion to be more personalized less public role for religion and a separation of Church and State
Fundamentalism A movement that emphasis the literal interpretation or absolute truth of the Scriptures Why is Islamic Fundamentalism considered by many Westerners to be a threat to society?
The Separation of Church and State A Fundamentalist Revival Iran 1979(Islamic Republic) Pro-Western regime Overthrown by IF leader Ayatollah Khomeini Proclaimed a cultural revolution to eliminate Western influence in : Food Clothing Architecture City planning Education Manners Teachers were purged Universities closed All music banned Women were forced to assume traditional roles in society