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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 14 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Families, Lifestyles,

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 14 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Families, Lifestyles,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 14 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Families, Lifestyles, and Parenting

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Families, Lifestyles, and Parenting Analyzing Family Life The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Parenting Other Family Relationships

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Family Life Cycle Analyzing Family Life Fig. 14.1

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Family Processes Recalling Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory Microsystem level — reciprocal socialization –Bidirectional: children socialize parents just as parents socialize children Family as a social system Sociocultural and historical changes –Effects on family processes Analyzing Family Life

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Direct and Indirect Interactions Between Parents and Children Analyzing Family Life Fig Marital relationship Parenting Child behavior and development

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Single Adults Being single –Dramatic increase in percentage in 2000 –Myths and stereotypes –Advantages and disadvantages –Common problems Forming intimate relationships with other adults Loneliness Finding niche in marriage oriented society The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Percentage of Single Adults 30 to 34 Years of Age The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Fig Percent Year

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cohabiting Adults Dramatic rise in cohabiting before marriage –Higher in countries other than the U.S. –Cohabiting tends to be short-lived in U.S. –Comparing cohabitation to marriage –Advantages and disadvantages of cohabiting The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Increase in Cohabitation in the U.S. The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Fig. 14.4

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Married Adults Marital trends –Changing male-female equality in marriage has created more fragile, intense marital relationships –More adults remain single longer –Average U.S. marriage lasts just over 9 years –U.S. still a marrying society; divorce rates slowing –Religion influences marriage in some cultures –International comparisons in marriage The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Increase in Age at 1 st Marriage in U.S. The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Fig Year Age (years)

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Makes Marriages Work Establishing love maps Nurturing fondness and admiration Turning toward each other instead of away Letting your partner influence you Solving solvable conflicts Overcoming gridlock Creating shared meaning The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Makes Marriages Work Typical areas of marital conflict even in happy marriages –Work –Stress –In-laws –Money Benefits of a good marriage The Diversity of Adult Life Styles –Sex –Housework –New baby

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriage in Middle and Late Adulthood Middle Adulthood –Most marrieds express considerable satisfaction Late Adulthood –Widowhood and adjustment –Adjustments needed at retirement –Happiness affected by each partner’s coping with aging Divorced adults The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Timing of Divorce and Age of Divorced Adults If divorce occurs, it usually happens early in marriage –Stress of separation and divorce pose risks for psychological and physical difficulties Psychiatric disorders and hospital admission Clinical depression and alcoholism Psychosomatic disorders –Concerns of custodial and non-custodial parents The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Divorce Rate in Relation to Number of Years Married The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Years married Percent of divorcees Fig. 14.6

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Diversity of Pathways Out of Divorce Enhancers Good enoughs Seekers Libertines Competent loners Defeated The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Strategies for Divorced Adults See divorce as opportunity for personal growth Think carefully about your decisions Focus more on the future than the past Capitalize on your strengths Don’t expect success & happiness in all you do Believe there is more than one pathway The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Divorced in Middle and Older Adults Main reason for staying married: children Main causes of divorce The Diversity of Adult Life Styles –For men No obvious problems, just fell out of love Cheating Different values, lifestyles –For women Verbal, physical, emotional abuse Alcohol or drug abuse Cheating

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Remarried Adults Complex histories and multiple relationships make adjustment difficult –Only one-third stepfamily couples stay remarried –Strategies that help: Realistic expectations New positive relations in the family Remarriage and Aging The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gay and Lesbian Adults Similar in satisfactions and need to find balance as heterosexual couples –Satisfactions: loves, joys, conflicts –Needs: romantic love, affection, autonomy, equality –More flexible in gender roles than heterosexuals –Prefer long term, committed relationships –Lesbians usually do not have open relationships –Increasingly creating families with children The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Amount of Same Sex Couples with Children The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Fig. 14.7

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parental Roles Many plan to be parents; others are startled Needs and expectations stimulate myths Timing of parenthood –Advantages of having children early and later Transition to parenting requires adapting –Choices of how to become parents –Career and role decisions Parenting

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Parenting Authoritarian Authoritative Neglectful Indulgent Restrictive, punitive style; parents exhort child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions Parent very uninvolved in child’s life Parents very involved with children, place few demands/controls on them

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Classification of Parenting Styles Fig Parenting

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Authoritative Parenting Most likely to be most effective style –Parents establish appropriate balance –More likely to engage in verbal give-and-take –Warmth and parental involvement have influence –Transcends boundaries of ethnicity and SES Asian American families and training Neutral or positive outcomes in other groups Parenting

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Punishment and Discipline Historically, corporal punishment considered necessity and desirable for disciplining child –Legal in all states; used by majority of parents –Favored most in U.S. and Canada –Few research studies on physical punishment –Strong emotional support by parents reduced link between spanking and children’s problems Parenting

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Punishment and Discipline Corporal punishment by parents associated with –Higher levels of immediate compliance –Increased aggression among children –Lower levels of moral internalization and mental health Most child psychologists recommend reasoning with the child Parenting

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Child Maltreatment Parenting Physical abuse Child neglect Sexual abuse Emotional abuse Infliction of physical injury Failure to provide basic needs Fondling child’s genitals, sodomy, intercourse, incest, exhibitionism, rape, and commercial exploitation Acts or omissions by parents or other caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors Linked to Child Abuse Cultural Context –Excessive violence in U.S. culture Family Influences –Interactions of all family members –Abuse history of parents Co-parenting Parenting

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Autonomy and Attachment between Adolescents and Parents Good parenting takes time and effort –Conflict when adolescents push for autonomy; gradual release of control is best –Gender and culture affect seeking and granting autonomy –Parent-child attachment remains important Parenting

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parent-Adolescent Conflict Conflict with parents escalates in early adolescence –Biological changes –Cognitive changes –Social changes –Maturational changes –Violated expectations Some cultures marked by less conflict Parenting

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Competent Parenting of Adolescents Adolescent development enhanced when their parents… –Show them warmth and mutual respect –Demonstrate sustained interest in their lives –Recognize and adapt to their cognitive and socio-emotional development –Communication high standards and expectations –Deal constructively with conflict and problems Parenting

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Working Parents Work has positive and negative effects on parenting –When child’s mother works in first year, it can have negative effect on child’s later development –Parents over-investing in children can have negative effects –Division of time for more chores and children –Latchkey children Parenting

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Effects of Divorce on Children Children –More likely to show poorer adjustment –Who are socially mature and responsible show few behavioral problems –With difficult temperament often have problems coping with divorce Adjustment improves if –conflicts reduced by divorce –parents harmonious and authoritative Parenting

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Single-Parent Families in Different Countries Parenting Fig

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Communicating with Children About Divorce Explain separation Separation not child’s fault May take time to feel better Keep door open for further discussion Provide as much continuity as possible Provide support for children and yourself Parenting

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Divorce and Children’s Emotional Problems Fig Parenting

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Stepfamilies Divorce and widowhood creates stepfamilies –Stepfather –Stepmother –Blended or complex In stepfamilies, children –Show more adjustment problems –In simple families adjust better –Show fewer depressive symptoms over time Parenting

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sibling Relationships and Birth Order Sibling relationships –Difficult to generalize as relationships vary –Persist over entire lifespan; closer in adulthood Birth order –Higher expectations for first-born children –First born more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, anxious, and self-controlled –Only child often achievement-oriented and displays desirable personality Other Family Relationships

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Grandparenting Highly satisfying for most –Easier than parenting; enjoy frequent contact –Functions of role varies in families, ethnic groups, and cultures; support, advice, child care Rewards of Grandparenting –Biological continuity and reward –Emotional fulfillment, companionship Other Family Relationships

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Styles of Grandparents Formal — –Proper and prescribed role –Strong interest in child, gives no advice Fun-seeking — –Informal and playful –Child is source of leisure, mutual satisfaction Distant — –Benevolent, infrequent interaction Other Family Relationships

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Grandmothers and Grandfathers Grandmother –Maintained family ties across generations –Have more contact with grandchildren than grandfather Grandfathers –Few expectations for role, more voluntary Changing profiles of grandparents Little research done on great-grandparenting Other Family Relationships

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Intergenerational Relationships As children age, think more positively of their parents –Mother-daughter conflicts lessen over life course –Family members maintain considerable contact –Parents and young adult children describe their relationship differently; relationship related to nature of earlier relationship Other Family Relationships

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 14


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