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IA901 2012 Session Nine An Introduction to Discourse Analysis.

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1 IA901 2012 Session Nine An Introduction to Discourse Analysis

2 Link back to last week Semantic fields

3 ????

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7 Semantic sets and collocation

8 Hoey (2005) Train as a…

9 Hoey (2005) train trains trained training as ateacher doctor nurse lawyer painter dancer barrister chef Braille shorthand typist

10 Hoey (2005) train trains trained training as ateacher doctor nurse lawyer painter dancer barrister chef Braille shorthand typist SKILLED ROLE OR OCCUPATION

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12 Semantic Set (from Francis et al, 1996) Verbs following the pattern VERB + for + NP Purpose of + for NOUN (Willis) endure, keep, live, last extend, stretch wait plan, arrange, provide prepare, study, train pay, answer, apologise report, sign on, show up, enrol hunt, look, shop, listen beg, send, shout, call act, fight, play, speak substitute, stand in pray, speak up, vote feel, grieve

13 Semantic Set (from Francis et al, 1996) Verbs following the pattern VERB + for + NP Purpose of + for NOUN (Willis) LASTendure, keep, live, lastTIME LASTextend, stretchDISTANCE WAITwaitREASON WHY PLANplan, arrange, provideREASON WHY PREPAREprepare, study, trainREASON WHY COMPENSATEpay, answer, apologiseREASON WHY VOLUNTEERreport, sign on, show up, enrolREASON WHY SEARCHhunt, look, shop, listenASK / LOOK FOR ASKbeg, send, shout, callASK / LOOK FOR WORKact, fight, play, speakWHO WANTS OR NEEDS DEPUTISEsubstitute, stand inWHO WANTS OR NEEDS ARGUEpray, speak up, voteWHO WANTS OR NEEDS CAREfeel, grieveWHO WANTS OR NEEDS

14 Back to the sentence…

15 Hoey (2005) takes the opening sentence from a Bill Bryson travel book: In winter Hammerfest is a thirty-hour ride by bus from Oslo, though why anyone would want to go there in winter is a question worth considering. and compares it to: Through winter, rides between Oslo and Hammerfest use thirty hours up in a bus, though why travellers would select to ride there then might be pondered. The explanation is provided by attention to COLLOCATION and COLLIGATION. For example, Hoey’s corpus tells him that: 59% of uses of IN WINTER relate to a clause whose verb is PRESENT SIMPLE 54% of uses of IN THE WINTER relate to a clause whose verb is PAST SIMPLE IN WINTER is more likely to occur with “relational process verbs” than “material process verbs”

16 What do you already know about the University of Essex? Make notes on your answers to the following questions: Where is Essex university? How many campuses are there? How old is it? How many students are there? (who are they?) Is the university famous for anything? Is it a good university? Do you know any interesting 'facts' about the university?

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19 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

20 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

21 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

22 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

23 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

24 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

25 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

26 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

27 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

28 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

29 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

30 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

31 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

32 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

33 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

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35 Difficult sentences?

36 Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non-repayable.

37 Sentence structure: S V O / Somebody + be entitled to + something

38 The first attribute of the art object is that it creates a discontinuity between itself and the unsynthesised manifold. Sentence structure: The X of Y is that it does Z.

39 Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Structure : X argues that Y does Z

40 Bottom up? Top down?

41 3 Lessons from the analysis of chunks 3.9 Conclusions and implications Chunks as a mark of the native speaker Research by Prodromou (2005) suggests that the speech of native speakers can be distinguished from the speech of advanced non-native Successful Users of English (SUEs) by, amongst other things, the presence or absence of common chunks. Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Prodromou is not advocating the enforced metamorphosis of expert users into native speakers; nor are we. The lesson here may be that receptive mastery is more important than productive repertoire. But the issue is twofold: firstly, we believe that those students who do wish to push forward towards near-native fluency should be given appropriate exposure to and practice in the use of chunks. Certainly in terms of social integration (e.g. students living and attempting to integrate in the L2 environment), it would seem that those who integrate more successfully are likely to acquire and use chunks more naturally, a claim for which Adolphs and Durrow (2004) present some evidence. But… Chunks and fluency One of the features of chunks not discussed above…

42 3 Lessons from the analysis of chunks 3.9 Conclusions and implications Chunks as a mark of the native speaker Research by Prodromou (2005) suggests that the speech of native speakers can be distinguished from the speech of advanced non-native Successful Users of English (SUEs) by, amongst other things, the presence or absence of common chunks. Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Prodromou is not advocating the enforced metamorphosis of expert users into native speakers; nor are we. The lesson here may be that receptive mastery is more important than productive repertoire. But the issue is twofold: firstly, we believe that those students who do wish to push forward towards near-native fluency should be given appropriate exposure to and practice in the use of chunks. Certainly in terms of social integration (e.g. students living and attempting to integrate in the L2 environment), it would seem that those who integrate more successfully are likely to acquire and use chunks more naturally, a claim for which Adolphs and Durrow (2004) present some evidence. But… Chunks and fluency One of the features of chunks not discussed above…

43 3 Lessons from the analysis of chunks 3.9 Conclusions and implications Chunks as a mark of the native speaker Research by Prodromou (2005) suggests that the speech of native speakers can be distinguished from the speech of advanced non-native Successful Users of English (SUEs) by, amongst other things, the presence or absence of common chunks. Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Prodromou is not advocating the enforced metamorphosis of expert users into native speakers; nor are we. The lesson here may be that receptive mastery is more important than productive repertoire. But the issue is twofold: firstly, we believe that those students who do wish to push forward towards near-native fluency should be given appropriate exposure to and practice in the use of chunks. Certainly in terms of social integration (e.g. students living and attempting to integrate in the L2 environment), it would seem that those who integrate more successfully are likely to acquire and use chunks more naturally, a claim for which Adolphs and Durrow (2004) present some evidence. But… Chunks and fluency One of the features of chunks not discussed above…

44 3 Lessons from the analysis of chunks 3.9 Conclusions and implications Chunks as a mark of the native speaker Research by Prodromou (2005) suggests that the speech of native speakers can be distinguished from the speech of advanced non-native Successful Users of English (SUEs) by, amongst other things, the presence or absence of common chunks. Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Prodromou is not advocating the enforced metamorphosis of expert users into native speakers; nor are we. The lesson here may be that receptive mastery is more important than productive repertoire. But the issue is twofold: firstly, we believe that those students who do wish to push forward towards near-native fluency should be given appropriate exposure to and practice in the use of chunks. Certainly in terms of social integration (e.g. students living and attempting to integrate in the L2 environment), it would seem that those who integrate more successfully are likely to acquire and use chunks more naturally, a claim for which Adolphs and Durrow (2004) present some evidence. But… Chunks and fluency One of the features of chunks not discussed above…

45 3 Lessons from the analysis of chunks 3.9 Conclusions and implications Chunks as a mark of the native speaker Research by Prodromou (2005) suggests that the speech of native speakers can be distinguished from the speech of advanced non-native Successful Users of English (SUEs) by, amongst other things, the presence or absence of common chunks. Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Prodromou is not advocating the enforced metamorphosis of expert users into native speakers; nor are we. The lesson here may be that receptive mastery is more important than productive repertoire. But the issue is twofold: firstly, we believe that those students who do wish to push forward towards near-native fluency should be given appropriate exposure to and practice in the use of chunks. Certainly in terms of social integration (e.g. students living and attempting to integrate in the L2 environment), it would seem that those who integrate more successfully are likely to acquire and use chunks more naturally, a claim for which Adolphs and Durrow (2004) present some evidence. But… Chunks and fluency One of the features of chunks not discussed above…

46 3 Lessons from the analysis of chunks 3.9 Conclusions and implications Chunks as a mark of the native speaker Research by Prodromou (2005) suggests that the speech of native speakers can be distinguished from the speech of advanced non-native Successful Users of English (SUEs) by, amongst other things, the presence or absence of common chunks. Prodromou argues very persuasively that core chunks such as sort of and you know membership speakers within cultural communities and project a ‘deep commonality’ amongst interlocutors which the learner or even the highly successful non-native user may not wish to claim nor has any reason to claim. Prodromou is not advocating the enforced metamorphosis of expert users into native speakers; nor are we. The lesson here may be that receptive mastery is more important than productive repertoire. But the issue is twofold: firstly, we believe that those students who do wish to push forward towards near-native fluency should be given appropriate exposure to and practice in the use of chunks. Certainly in terms of social integration (e.g. students living and attempting to integrate in the L2 environment), it would seem that those who integrate more successfully are likely to acquire and use chunks more naturally, a claim for which Adolphs and Durrow (2004) present some evidence. But… Chunks and fluency One of the features of chunks not discussed above…

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50 Beyond the sentence

51 Derek Bentley, 19Christopher Craig, 16PC Sidney Miles

52 'Lord Raglan wishes the cavalry to advance rapidly to the front - follow the enemy and try to prevent the enemy carrying away the guns. Troop Horse Artillery may accompany. French cavalry is on your left. R Airey. Immediate.' 156 dead. 122 injured.

53 Dell Hymes’ four aspects of communicative competence: 1. THE POSSIBLE (what can be expressed) a) I know an old lady who swallowed a fly. b) *Who an know fly a swallowed lady old I. 2.THE FEASIBLE (what can be readily processed) a) Korina, where Evgenia had had “had”, had had “had had”; “had had” had had Norman’s approval.  b) Norman thought that Korina’s translation of είχε into English was better than Evgenia’s. 3. THE APPROPRIATE (to context) a)Give me some more money you bastard. b)I am writing to apply for an extension of my overdraft. 4. THE PERFORMED (frequency of use) a)Fancy a pint? b)Wouldst thou entertain the feasibility of a hop-based alcoholic beverage?

54 Feasibility

55 Are the following two sentences well-formed? Both are taken from Widdowson (2007:15). a) Two sisters were reunited after eight years at a checkout counter. b) The stolen painting was found by a tree. How communicative are sentences a) and b)? Are they possible? Are they feasible? Can we say anything about how appropriate or “performed” they may be? Widdowson: there is no direct correspondence between feasibility and grammatical well- formedness, any more than there is between grammatical well-formedness and appropriateness to context (ibid)

56 Here are two longer “stretches of language”, presented in Discourse by Guy Cook (1989: 3): This box contains, on average, 100 Large Plain Paper Clips. ‘Applied Linguistics’ is therefore not the same as ‘Linguistics’. The tea’s as hot as it could be. This is Willie Worm. Just send 12 Guinness ‘cool token’ bottle tops. Playback. Raymond Chandler. Penguin Books in association with Hamish Hamilton. To Jean and Helga, without whom this book could never have been written. One. The voice on the telephone seemed to be sharp and peremptory, but I didn’t hear too well what it said – partly because I was only half awake and partly because I was holding the receiver upside down. Cook then asks the following four questions: 1.Which of these two stretches of language is part of a unified whole? 2.What sort of text is it? 3.What is the other one? 4.How did you distinguish between them?

57 The appropriate (and performed) There may be no relationship between: - grammatical well-formedness and feasibility - grammatical well-formedness and appropriateness But is there a relationship between GRAMMATICAL FORM and APPROPRIATENESS?

58 Form and Context 1.Are PHRASAL VERBS more common in FICTION or ACADEMIC TEXTS? 2.Is the PRESENT TENSE used more frequently in CONVERSATION or NEWS? 3.Are the modal verbs MAY, SHOULD, and MUST more frequently used in CONVERSATION or ACADEMIC TEXTS? 4.Is the PASSIVE VOICE more likely to be used in CONVERSATION or ACADEMIC TEXTS? 5.Is the PERFECT ASPECT more common in news stories written in BRITISH ENGLISH or AMERCAN ENGLISH? 6.Is the CONTINUOUS ASPECT more common in FICTION or ACADEMIC TEXTS? 7.Is the PAST TENSE used more frequently in FICTION or ACADEMIC TEXTS? (data for answers comes from Biber et al, 2002)

59 Text and Genre

60 Here is Edward Bear, coming downstairs now, bump, bump, bump on the back of his head, behind Christopher Robin. It is, as far as he knows, the only way of coming downstairs, but sometimes he feels that there really is another way, if only he could stop bumping for a moment and think of it, and then he feels that perhaps there isn’t.

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65 Schemata

66 How do you think the following texts continue? 1.Once upon a time there was a King… 2.I am sixteen. I have been dating the same boy now for… 3.To select the required program, turn… 4.Unwanted facial hair can be embarrassing. Now… 5.This man walks into a bar… 6.There was a young woman from Leeds… princesssend a text messagesword miracleweedsdetergent dialkissdouble lovepowderrazor clothessmoothcream applysingleshalf an hour seedswitchflower

67 How might the following texts continue? 7. She’s one of those dumb, pretty Marilyn Monroe type blondes. She spends hours looking after her nails. She polishes them every day and keeps them… 8. The king put his seal on the letter. It…

68 What do you think about these continuations: 7. She’s one of those dumb, pretty Marilyn Monroe type blondes. She spends hours looking after her nails. She polishes them every day and keeps them all neatly arranged in little jam jars in the cellar, graded according to length, on the shelf above the hammers and the electric drills.

69 What do you think about these continuations: 8. The king put his seal on the letter. It waggled its flippers, and caught a fish in its mouth.

70 Coherence and cohesion

71 Through the fence, between the curling flower spaces, I could see them hitting. They were coming toward where the flag was and I went along the fence. Luster was hunting in the grass by the flower tree. They took the flag out, and they were hitting. Then they put the flag back and they went to the table, and he hit and the other hit. Then they went on, and I went along the fence. Luster came away from the flower tree and we went along the fence and they stopped and we stopped and I looked through the fence while Luster was hunting in the grass. "Here, caddie." He hit. They went away across the pasture. I held to the fence and watched them going away. "Listen at you, now." Luster said. "Aint you something, thirty three years old, going on that way. After I done went all the way to town to buy you that cake. Hush up that moaning. Aint you going to help me find that quarter so I can go to the show tonight." They were hitting little, across the pasture. I went back along the fence to where the flag was. It flapped on the bright grass and the trees.

72 Here is Edward Bear, coming downstairs now, bump, bump, bump on the back of his head, behind Christopher Robin. It is, as far as he knows, the only way of coming downstairs, but sometimes he feels that there really is another way, if only he could stop bumping for a moment and think of it, and then he feels that perhaps there isn’t.

73 Mary had a little lamb Its fleece was white as snow And everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go They fuck you up, your mum and dad They may not mean to, but they do They fill you with the faults they had And add some extra, just for you Nursery Rhyme credited to Sarah Hale, of Boston, in 1830 Poem “This be the verse” by Philip Larkin, published in 1971

74 Mary had a little lamb Its fleece was white as snow And everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go They fuck you up, your mum and dad They may not mean to, but they do They fill you with the faults they had And add some extra, just for you anaphoric reference

75 Mary had a little lamb Its fleece was white as snow And everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go They fuck you up, your mum and dad They may not mean to, but they do They fill you with the faults they had And add some extra, just for you cataphoric reference

76 Mary had a little lamb Its fleece was white as snow And everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go They fuck you up, your mum and dad They may not mean to, but they do They fill you with the faults they had And add some extra, just for you exophoric reference

77 Mary had a little lamb Its fleece was white as snow And everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go They fuck you up, your mum and dad They may not mean to, but they do They fill you with the faults they had And add some extra, just for you ellipsis

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81 a) Do you know why America is the wealthiest country in the world? b) It’s because we build big and we build fast. We put up the Empire State Building in six weeks. c)Six weeks, mon dieu, so long! d)Ze Eiffel Tower we put up in one month exactement. e)And you f)What has Australia done to match that? g)Ah, nuthin’, mate. Not that I know of. h) What about that? i) Dunno, mate. It wasn’t there yesterday.

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83 An American, a Frenchman, and an Australian were sitting in a bar overlooking Sydney Harbour. “Do you know why America is 1.the wealthiest country in 2.the world?” asked 3. the American. “4.It’s because 5.we build big and we build fast. We put up 6. the Empire State Building in six weeks”. “Six weeks, mon dieu, so long!” snapped 7. the Frenchman. “8. Ze Eiffel Tower we put up in one month exactement. And 9. you,” he continued, turning to 10. the Australian, “what has Australia done to match 11.that?” “Ah, nuthin’, mate. Not that I know of.” The American pointed to 12. the Harbour Bridge. “What about 13. that?” 14. he asked. 15.The Australian looked over 16.his shoulder. “Dunno, mate. 17. It wasn’t there yesterday”. Text adapted from Thornbury (2005 : 28)

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85 Coherence and knowledge

86 Learn among the chickens With 300 million native speakers scattered across 20 countries, Arabic is the world's sixth-largest language. Yet British ignorance of and indifference to the Arab world remains startling: of 737 postgraduate students in Islamic or Middle Eastern studies funded by the Economic and Social Research Council last year, 12 were British nationals.

87 Europe's very own Puerto Rico Romania, now set for EU membership, has no proper democracy or market economy. It will be the exploited dependency of a neighbouring Goliath, argues Tom Gallagher. At the height of the Kosovo crisis in May 1999, Tony Blair was on his way to Bucharest, the Romanian capital, to drum up local support for Nato's high-risk confrontation with Serbia. The Prime Minister astonished his advisers by suddenly announcing on the aeroplane that he was going to promise Romania early membership of the European Union in return for its continued backing.

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89 Version 1 It was in 1899 that Ernest Miller Hemingway was born in Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago. Being a doctor was the occupation of his father, a keen sportsman. Of six children, Ernest was the second. A lakeside hunting lodge of in Michigan, near Indian settlements, was the place where holidays were spent by the family. Although in school activities Ernest was energetic and successful, twice he ran away from home before Kansas City Star was joined by him as a cub reporter in 1917. The Italian front was the place where he volunteered as an ambulance driver during the next year, and was badly wounded. Writing features for the Toronto Star Weekly was what he did when he returned to America in 1919. 1921 was the year he married. As a roving correspondent he came to Europe that year, and several large conferences were covered by him.

90 Version 2 Ernest Miller Hemingway was born in 1899 at Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago, where his father, a keen sportsman, was a doctor. He was the second of six children. The family spent holidays in a lakeside hunting lodge in Michigan, near Indian settlements. Although energetic and successful in all school activities, Ernest twice ran away from home before joining the Kansas City Star as a cub reporter in 1917. Next year he volunteered as an ambulance driver on the Italian front and was badly wounded. Returning to America he began to write features for the Toronto Star Weekly in 1919 and was married in 1921. That year he came to Europe as a roving correspondent and covered several large conferences.

91 Given / ThemeNew / Rheme Ernest Miller Hemingway was born in 1899 at Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago where his fathera keen sportsman, was a doctor. He wasthe second of six children. The family spent holidays in a lakeside hunting lodge in Michigan, near Indian settlements. Although [he was] energetic and successful in all school activities, Ernest twice ran away from home before joining the Kansas City Star as a cub reporter in 1917. Next year he volunteered as an ambulance driver on the Italian front and was badly wounded. Returning to America he began to write features for the Toronto Star Weekly in 1919 and wasmarried in 1921. That year hecame to Europe as a roving correspondent and covered several large conferences.

92 Version 3 : What information could be removed to improve this text if the reader was: a child; the mayor of Oak Park; Hemingway’s mother; an inhabitant of “the Indian settlements in Michigan”; a martian? Ernest Miller Hemingway was born indoors in 1899 at Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago, a large city in the USA, where his father, a keen sportsman, was a doctor. He was the second of six children. For short periods each year, the family spent holidays in a lakeside hunting lodge in Michigan, near Indian settlements. They spent the time there swimming and walking, and when the holidays were over they used to return home. They young Ernest, who grew older as the years passed by, attended a local school, and although energetic and successful in all school activities, Ernest twice ran away from home, though he returned on both occasions. What he left school, he joined the Kansas City Star as a cub reporter in 1917. At that time there was a war raging in Europe, and the next year he volunteered as an ambulance driver on the Italian front and was badly wounded during an attack by the enemy army. This prevent him from continuing his work. Returning to America he began to write features for a newspaper called the Toronto Star Weekly in 1919 and, in 1921 was married of his own free will to a woman he had met and fallen in love with earlier. That year he came to Europe by boat as a roving correspondent and covered several large conferences. He ate food every day and slept at night. (Cook, 1989 :92)

93 Lessons from discourse analysis: - focus on form is not enough -students need to see the functions of forms -functions of forms are context-related - function and form interact. Students need to be able to understand chains of functions in order to understand discourse

94 References

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