Introduction… HV = video + a non linear information structure –Allowing user to make choices –content of the video and the user's interests Analogous to hypertext: –"Element of time“ – Text is normally static, video is dynamic Hypervideo has different technical, aesthetic, and rhetorical requirements –A link from an object in a video, that is visible for only a certain duration
Motivation Wider availability of broadband - has increased the linking video capabilities Digital libraries - video is an important part. Vast video archives: could be useful in education and historical research.
Motivation for us VideoClix –http://www.videoclix.tv/#vcx_pjsb7d234081http://www.videoclix.tv/#vcx_pjsb7d234081 Hypervideo and Silverlight: –"a video that contains embedded links that allow navigation between video and other media elements" –http://www.silverlight.net/learn/videos/silver light-videos/hypervideo-part-1/http://www.silverlight.net/learn/videos/silver light-videos/hypervideo-part-1/
How it works Segment the video appropriately Add the metadata required to link from frames (or even objects) To logically relevant information in other media forms
Concepts and Technical Challenges Hypervideo is challenging: separating video into linkable content. Video = sequence of images –To segment a video into meaningful pieces (objects/scenes) –It is necessary to provide a context, both - in space and time Manual segmentation difficult: –For.E.g.: A short video at the rate of 30 frames per second 30 seconds = 900 frames
Challenges cntd.. The smallest linkable unit of a video –a single frame: easy, but cannot contain video info –a scene (minimum sequential set of frames that conveys meaning) –algorithms need capability of detecting scene transitions Time introduces complexity: –Assuming frame is the smallest time unit, –Separating the frame image into its constituent objects - segmentation at the object level. –Follow the same object through a sequence of frames (object tracking)
Concepts cntd.. After nodes are segmented and combined with the associated linking information. –This metadata must be incorporated with the original video for playback. –The metadata is placed conceptually in layers, or tracks, on top of the video. –This layered structure is then presented to the user for viewing and interaction.
Concepts cntd.. Three components: –One or more videos –Markers embedded into the video invisible to the user but perceived by the player –The hypervideo player The display technology, used to play the hypervideo content.
Hypervideo authoring tools Authoring = The process of creating hypervideo content Examples: –VideoClix: A commercially available technology plays on players like QuickTime and Flash –Adobe Flash: Flash was not designed hypervideo authoring tool - can be difficult using Flash alone Added functionality through outside software - for e.g.: MoVideo and Digital Lava –Asterpix: offers a hypervideo service and browser. Users can convert internet videos sites (such as YouTube) on the fly viewers may interact and navigate the hypervideo without the need for any special software. –Silverlight.
Hypervideo authoring tools In Silverlight: –A word appears on the screen and when you click on it, the first video pauses and a second video begins detailing your retirement plan options. –You click on the question mark... –You click on the glowing question help button…
Related research US Patent 6462754 (October 8, 2002) –Method and apparatus for authoring and linking video documents (http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6462754.html)http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6462754.html Combining Spatial and Navigational Structure in the Hyper-Hitchcock Hypervideo Editor –(http://www.fxpal.com/publications/FXPAL-PR-03- 250.pdf)http://www.fxpal.com/publications/FXPAL-PR-03- 250.pdf HyLive: Hypervideo-Authoring for Live Television 2008 –(http://www.springerlink.com/content/r46415461n0505 85/)http://www.springerlink.com/content/r46415461n0505 85/
Hypervideo Applications. Education –Computer-Based Training –Research and Development Entertainment –Youtube Marketing
Possible areas for future research Aesthetic and rhetoric properties of hypervideo Development of standards Automatic generation of hypervideo Computer-Based Training