Bees: Waggle Dance Returning forager bees communicate the distance, sun- bearing, and quality of the nectar they have found in a dance.
Bees: Waggle Dance Strictly speaking von Frisch only identified that the waggle dance contained certain information He didn’t prove that the followers were actually using that info. “The flight paths of honeybees recruited by the waggle dance,” J. R. Riley, U. Greggers, A. D. Smith, D. R. Reynolds, R. Menzel, Nature, May 12, 2005
Vervet Monkeys: Contents of Calls Call evokes evasive action quick – into the trees! Call evokes representation of threat –watch out – there a lion!
Vervet Monkeys: Contents of Calls One suggestive result is that monkeys act differently depending where they are when they hear the alarm vs
Vervet Monkeys: Contents of Calls Playback experiments Repeatedly play back same call observe habituation vs
Vervet Monkeys: Contents of Calls Habituate one call then test another E.g., snake, snake, snake, leopard
Vervet Monkeys: Contents of Calls Wrr & ‘chutter’ both mean ‘other monkeys’ Habituate chutter Test wrr
Language Human language has: Vocabulary 10s or 100s of thousands of tokens Grammar Rules for combining words Displaced reference No matter how eloquently your dog may bark, he will never tell you that his parents were honest but poor - Wittgenstein Creativity Ability to describe things never seen before.
Winthrop & Luella Kellogg with Donald and Gua, 1931.
Ape Language: Kanzi’s Grammar Productive ‘grammar’ Just word order habits Lexigram gesture Mean length of utterance 1.15 after 20 years – less than Nim! 94% utterances just one sign.
Kanzi on Japanese TV documentary Human: Kanzi, this is Janine. Would you like any food? Tell me what food you'd like. Kanzi: Food surprise. Human: Some food surprise? Kanzi: Food surprise. Human: Kanzi, would you like a juice, or some M&Ms, or some sugar cane? Kanzi: M&Ms. Human: You like M&Ms? Okay. Kanzi, is there any other food you'd like me to bring in the backpack? Kanzi: Ball. Human: A ball? Okay … Kanzi: Want milk. Milk. Human: You want some milk? I know, you always want some milk when you're planning to be good. Kanzi: Key. Matada. Good. Human: Oh, you want the key to Matada, and you're going to be good. Well, I'm glad to hear that. I'm glad to hear that.
Dolphins: artificial language Akeakamai with Louis Herman, 2000
Dolphins: artificial language Pipe hoop fetch = ´take the hoop to the pipe´ Hoop pipe fetch = ´take the pipe to the hoop´ Akea tested on 193 novel sentences & correct on 85% Akeakamai with Louis Herman, 2000
Parrots What is green? What wood? What shape? How many? What shape is the green wood?
Animal Communication Many species communicate From insects to apes The communicative abilities of all species can only be understood as part of their behavioral adaptation to their niches Thus no two species communicate in the same way You may have seen a dog trying to sniff a cat´s rear end And our language is unique to us.