# Optical Recording and Communications 1 Optical Recording and Communications.

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Optical Recording and Communications 1 Optical Recording and Communications

Optical Recording and Communications 2 Introductory Question When you submerge a digital watch in water and tilt it just right, the watch’s face appears to be a perfect mirror. This mirror reflection is from When you submerge a digital watch in water and tilt it just right, the watch’s face appears to be a perfect mirror. This mirror reflection is from A. the outer (front) surface of the watch face B. the inner (back) surface of the watch face

Optical Recording and Communications 3 Review of Digital Representation A physical quantity is measured A physical quantity is measured Measured value is represented by several digits Measured value is represented by several digits Binary digits are most common Binary digits are most common Binary digits have only two values: 0 and 1 Binary digits have only two values: 0 and 1 Each digit is represented by a physical quantity Each digit is represented by a physical quantity Discrete values represent a digit Discrete values represent a digit Good noise-immunity and error correction Good noise-immunity and error correction

Optical Recording and Communications 4 Digital Audio Represent air pressure fluctuations as current Represent air pressure fluctuations as current Measure current many times per second Measure current many times per second Convert current measurements to binary Convert current measurements to binary Use these binary values to represent sound Use these binary values to represent sound

Optical Recording and Communications 5 Optical Recording Media types: Media types: Compact Disc (CD) Compact Disc (CD) Laser Disc Laser Disc Digital Video/Versatile Disc (DVD) Digital Video/Versatile Disc (DVD) Reading technique: Reading technique: Reflect laser light from optical surface Reflect laser light from optical surface Measure reflected intensity to obtain information Measure reflected intensity to obtain information

Optical Recording and Communications 6 CD and DVD optics is diffraction limited Pit sizes are comparable to the light’s wavelength. Pit sizes are comparable to the light’s wavelength.

Optical Recording and Communications 7 Playback Techniques Laser light is focused on disc aluminum layer Laser light is focused on disc aluminum layer Reflection is weaker from ridge than flat Reflection is weaker from ridge than flat Reflected light is directed to photodiodes Reflected light is directed to photodiodes Light intensity indicates ridges or flats Light intensity indicates ridges or flats

Optical Recording and Communications 8 Playback Issues Light must hit ridges perfectly Light must hit ridges perfectly Feedback optimizes position of light spot Feedback optimizes position of light spot Light must hit only one ridge Light must hit only one ridge Use laser light Use laser light Focuses laser to diffraction limit Focuses laser to diffraction limit Feedback focuses laser on layer Feedback focuses laser on layer Ridge must be large enough to detect Ridge must be large enough to detect Ridge can’t be much smaller than light wavelength Ridge can’t be much smaller than light wavelength

Optical Recording and Communications 9 Advantages of Digital Recording Freedom from noise and media damage issues Freedom from noise and media damage issues Digital representation avoids information loss Digital representation avoids information loss Error correction ensures clean information Error correction ensures clean information Surface contamination doesn’t matter (much) Surface contamination doesn’t matter (much) High information density High information density Optical density greatly exceeds mechanical density Optical density greatly exceeds mechanical density Data compression is possible Data compression is possible Perfect, loss-less copies are possible Perfect, loss-less copies are possible

Optical Recording and Communications 10 Optical Communication Light transfers info from source to destination Light transfers info from source to destination Both analog and digital representations possible Both analog and digital representations possible Analog is used to monitor some processes remotely Analog is used to monitor some processes remotely Digital is the dominant representation Digital is the dominant representation Noise immunity and error correction Noise immunity and error correction Compression Compression Sharing a single communication channel is common Sharing a single communication channel is common

Optical Recording and Communications 11 Transmission Techniques Basic Concept Basic Concept Light source intensity encodes information Light source intensity encodes information Light sensor detects and decodes information Light sensor detects and decodes information Direct line-of-sight Direct line-of-sight Infrared remote controls Infrared remote controls Infrared computer links Infrared computer links Fiber transmission systems Fiber transmission systems Optical cables and networks Optical cables and networks

Optical Recording and Communications 12 Components Transmitters Transmitters Incandescent lamps (poor performance) Incandescent lamps (poor performance) Light Emitting Diodes (adequate performance) Light Emitting Diodes (adequate performance) Laser Diodes (high performance) Laser Diodes (high performance) Receivers Receivers Photoresistive cells (poor performance) Photoresistive cells (poor performance) Photodiodes (high performance) Photodiodes (high performance) Conduits Conduits Optical Fibers (ranging from poor to high performance) Optical Fibers (ranging from poor to high performance)

Optical Recording and Communications 13 Total Internal Reflection As light goes into material with a lower index of refraction, it bends away from the perpendicular As light goes into material with a lower index of refraction, it bends away from the perpendicular When the bend exceeds 90 degrees, the light reflects instead When the bend exceeds 90 degrees, the light reflects instead The reflection is perfect – total internal reflection The reflection is perfect – total internal reflection

Optical Recording and Communications 14 Introductory Question (revisited) When you submerge a digital watch in water and tilt it just right, the watch’s face appears to be a perfect mirror. This mirror reflection is from When you submerge a digital watch in water and tilt it just right, the watch’s face appears to be a perfect mirror. This mirror reflection is from A. the outer (front) surface of the watch face B. the inner (back) surface of the watch face

Optical Recording and Communications 15 Optical Fibers An optical fiber consists of a high-index glass core in a low-index glass sheath An optical fiber consists of a high-index glass core in a low-index glass sheath When light tries to leave the high-index core at a shallow angle, it experiences total internal reflection When light tries to leave the high-index core at a shallow angle, it experiences total internal reflection Light bounces endlessly through the core and emerges from the end of the fiber Light bounces endlessly through the core and emerges from the end of the fiber If the glass is pure and perfect enough, the light may travel for many kilometers through the fiber If the glass is pure and perfect enough, the light may travel for many kilometers through the fiber

Optical Recording and Communications 16 Optical Fiber Types

Optical Recording and Communications 17 Communication Issues Light must remain together during passage Light must remain together during passage Dispersion and path differences are bad Dispersion and path differences are bad Use laser light (monochromatic) Use laser light (monochromatic) Use low-dispersion glass at its best wavelength Use low-dispersion glass at its best wavelength Use narrow (single-mode) fiber Use narrow (single-mode) fiber Light attenuates during the trip Light attenuates during the trip Use low-loss glass Use low-loss glass Amplify the light periodically Amplify the light periodically Use fiber laser amplifiers Use fiber laser amplifiers

Optical Recording and Communications 18 Advantages of Digital Comm Freedom from noise Freedom from noise Digital representation avoids information loss Digital representation avoids information loss Error correction ensures clean transfer of information Error correction ensures clean transfer of information High information density High information density Optical density greatly exceeds electronic density Optical density greatly exceeds electronic density Data compression is possible Data compression is possible