Presentation on theme: "Privacy Forum: Think Big? Privacy in the Age of Big Data Wellington, New Zealand, 2 May 2012 Smart CCTV and the Evolution of Public Space CCTV Systems."— Presentation transcript:
Privacy Forum: Think Big? Privacy in the Age of Big Data Wellington, New Zealand, 2 May 2012 Smart CCTV and the Evolution of Public Space CCTV Systems Dr C. William R. Webster Stirling Management School, University of Stirling Chair, Living in Surveillance Societies (LiSS) COST Action LiSS Website:
Components of a CCTV System Camera (lens), fixed or mobile, analogue or digital Telecoms infrastructure Visual display equipment, including camera controls Recording and storage equipment Control centre or storage facility Street furniture, including signage Operators, including operational training, skills and surveillance practices (monitoring norms) Operational guides, including Codes of Practice Regulation, including legislation Management processes, finance and performance indicators Accountability and oversight arrangements Links to criminal justice system
So, What Makes a Smart CCTV System? A CCTV system that is: More effective (at what?) More powerful? More sophisticated? More technologically advanced? Multi-functional or multi-purpose? More intelligent? Easier to use? Less invasive? Cheaper?
A Typology of Public Space CCTV TypeFeatures ProactiveLive surveillance from a dedicated control room with recording, storage and playback facilities. Allows for an immediate response to incidents as they occur. ReactiveRecording, storage and playback facilities. Provides access to footage of incidents after the event has occurred. Non-activeNo monitoring, storage or playback facilities. Acts as a visual deterrent by using fake ‘cameras’ to create the illusion of surveillance. Auto-activeLive computerised surveillance incorporating automated ‘intelligent’ systems. Can include data matching.
Smart Developments in CCTV Integration and standardisation of existing systems & practices – Centralised control centres Expansion and new technological components – Drones, head cams, mobile cameras – Other sensors: infra-red, microwave, heat, sniffing and listening devices Image recognition and analysis (Smart CCTV) – Iris, face, movement, activity recognition – Object tracking and analysis – ANPR systems – Noise analysis Sophisticated integrated surveillance systems – Virtual tracking via mobile phones and CCTV – CCTV and profiling ‘Self’-surveillance – Social media and mobile phones (cameras) Smart safeguards – Masking of private space – Automated alerts for operators
The Rise of Smart CCTV - integration - digitisation - automation - - expansion - standardisation - computerisation - No agreed definition of ‘Smart CCTV’ ‘A visual surveillance system that is integrated with other ICTs and is capable of automatically processing images alongside other digital information for predefined purposes’ – Image analysis – New sensory devices – New data integration capabilities Perceived to be ‘more intelligent’ Allows for mass ‘real’ CCTV surveillance, smaller human intervention (expensive), quicker decisions
Issues and Implications Are citizens – the surveyed – aware of what CCTV cameras and systems do? Is there a need for greater public awareness – is this linked to the acceptability of systems? Would attitudes change if there was greater awareness of the ‘smartness’ of systems? To what extent are smart CCTV systems a greater infringement of privacy than normal systems? How smart is smart - how reliable are smart systems? Is there robust evidence that smart CCTV is more effective? Is smart CCTV a good example of ‘function creep’? Does regulation need to evolve as the technology becomes smarter? How many systems are evolving into Smart CCTV systems? How do providers identify the best/most appropriate Smart CCTV systems? What are the driving forces for introducing smart CCTV?