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Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum DAISY – the Best Way to Read? Print disability in ”every” Norwegian classroom. Equal opportunities for learning? Is DAISY a reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum DAISY – the Best Way to Read? Print disability in ”every” Norwegian classroom. Equal opportunities for learning? Is DAISY a reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum DAISY – the Best Way to Read? Print disability in ”every” Norwegian classroom. Equal opportunities for learning? Is DAISY a reading format useful for all students?

2 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 What is DAISY?

3 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Outline 1.Approach 2.Results 3.Implications 4.Discussion

4 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Quantitative Approach Questionnaire Survey on DAISY Use & Usefulness – In Norwegian primary and Secondary Education – 130 students + 67 teachers (Vs. Qualitative Studies) RQ: Who uses DAISY? Why is DAISY used? How is DAISY used? Is DAISY useful? Is DAISY potentially universally designed?

5 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Who uses DAISY? Students years with dyslexia (or similar) use DAISY.

6 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Why they tried DAISY 110 of 126 (valid) student respondents have dyslexia or other reading –and writing difficulties.

7 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 How is DAISY used, and Why? DAISY is used… Several times a week, In social/language subjects, At home for homework, Unsupervised with minimal help, Listening to and adjusting the narrator while navigating through pages and chapters, Using free playback SW & audio DAISY book. They use DAISY because… It makes reading easier and more efficient, they remember more and enables increased focus on content.

8 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Is DAISY Useful? Questionnaire results were transferred into quantitative functional usefulness measurements (using feature analysis). Functional usefulness: –Did not quite reach usefulness standard set. –Few features are both used, rated high on usefulness and on ease, which lowered usefulness score. –Basic features rated highly, and are useful. –6 core features. –Navigational features essential for DAISY usefulness. –Audio and full text also important for usefulness.

9 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Is DAISY Useful? Qualitative results agree with previous studies: DAISY experienced as useful and advantageous (teachers, parents, students: Empower, Self-support, Motivate) Audio support: stimulate & increase learning Audio book navigation improved by DAISY navigation Teachers lack competence on DAISY (learning methods, integrate, technical difficulties)

10 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Potential for Universal Design? Statistical significant age/gender differences are considered coincidental and not practically important No further student subgroups within sample: –Results generalized: DAISY is potentially universally designed Potential for universal usefulness –Survey: Teachers are positive, Students are unsure –Tests: Students want improved GUI (scrolling) & Efficiency!

11 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Potential for Universal Design? Non-disabled student end-user tests: Negative experience.

12 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Potential for Universal Design? Non-disabled student end-user tests: Positive experience.

13 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Gap#1: Lack of knowledge Experienced as useful & advantageous, but: –Less than 50% of functionality is in use –Technical difficulties create trouble in Paradise –So: Does DAISY really fit this user group? Main problem: Gap between knowledge possessed and needed.

14 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Thus, Playback SW is Key! Virtually no user training received by teachers Half of the students have received some help – this does not affect ease of use No systematic user training –No technical or functionality help offered to students –Do they even manage to install the SW?

15 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Solution… Diminish knowledge gap Mend main user problem! Approach: User training vs. System/SW improvement? “Improvement…how?”

16 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 DAISY’s new position DAISY has become the de-facto system for (Norwegian) students with print disabilities. Intention: to provide a reading system for visually impaired students at College/University, with navigational features and good audio. However, we have no choice but to evaluate DAISY in it’s current role – regardless of it’s initial intent.

17 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Focus: Intended vs. Primary users Student users are young: age Different needs and pre-requisites than older students. DAISY is primarily used by dyslectic students –110 of 126 respondents with dyslexia/reading difficulties No support and limited technical knowledge –20% of teachers say technical difficulties ruin experience

18 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Focus: Intended vs. Actual use Only 6 (core) features are in use & useful: 1.Scrolling (as navigational tool) 2.Jumping to a specific page 3.Jumping to/between chapters 4.Using full text (on screen) 5.Listening to natural speech 6.Listening to synthetic speech

19 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Functionality in use, rated:

20 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Implications What do the results suggest we do? The DAISY Consortium is the right body for discussing and exchange of ideas for future improvements. Based on my results, certain ”provoking” implications will be presented.

21 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Implication #1 Playback SW mainly developed for visually impaired, and needs more focus on suitability for visual users. Visual user interfaces must be improved: –Not tailored to visual users needs Free playback SW score high on visual user interface Amis 2.6 with improved stability most suitable?

22 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Implication #1 Amis 2.6EasyReader 2.30 Installation712 Help manual1114 User Interface1211 Navigation2125 Auditive1611 Full text2115 Other features1022 TOTAL:87121

23 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Implication #1 GUI needs improvement regarding Learnability : “The ease of which new users can efficiently interact” Amis shows great promise –Stability much improved. –Installation still quite complicated. –My opinion: Usable GUI, minor scrollbar issue. EaseReader also good fit –Important (well-implemented) features are hard to find. –Main issues: Scrollbar “jumping” and unfamiliar icons.

24 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Implication #2 Simplify playback SW! –Ignorant users OR too complex GUI? –Think HCI: Make it familiar and easy to understand. –Simplified solution for young users: Light-weight SW version with simpler graphical user interface: Design it to a 12 year old dyslectic girl that dreads reading. Focus on the 6 core features.

25 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Implication #3 “Stop adding functionality to DAISY!” –Too many GUI features in DAISY playback SW –DAISY Standard vs. DAISY playback-software Superfluous features -> Unnecessary complex GUIs -> Increased knowledge gap & user problems

26 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Further Implications.. Findings should be reflected in all areas, e.g.: Production costs: Full text vs. Natural speech Production processes: Simpler & Quicker? Further development: Visual vs. Blind user needs What choices should be made considering the age and disability of the majority of the users?

27 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Reversed Universal Design Successful reading aid system for visually impaired Evolving to potentially universal reading aid system Reversed Universal Design: Incremental strategy: Stepwise refinement until all user groups included Strategy: Focus on current users

28 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 With current results… Is DAISY really the best way to read for all students? Is DAISY currently optimally fitted for visual users? NO Is DAISY currently optimally fitted for dyslectic user groups? NO Is DAISY currently optimally fitted for children/young users? NO On what basis do we confirm universal design properties?

29 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 DAISY is on the move… …let’s move it further: 1.Information on DAISY possibilities is needed –Especially towards teachers and education system. 2.Make it simpler to get hold of, install and use. –My opinion: a better approach than nationwide end-user training programmes.

30 Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008 Make It the Best Way to Read! …let’s move it further: 3.Efficiency key to universal use –Success factor according to non-disabled students. 4.Provide a simplified version. 5.Focus on the young. Make them enjoy reading.

31 Thank you for your attention! Questions? Det finnes aldri så mange muligheter som i begrensningene Miriam Eileen Nes Begnum, DAISY– the Best Way to Read, Oslo, 10.June 2008


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