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Grooved or Incised Media Signal recorded by mechanically cutting or incising the surface of the carrier Most common types: Cylinders and Platters A lso.

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Presentation on theme: "Grooved or Incised Media Signal recorded by mechanically cutting or incising the surface of the carrier Most common types: Cylinders and Platters A lso."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grooved or Incised Media Signal recorded by mechanically cutting or incising the surface of the carrier Most common types: Cylinders and Platters A lso includes dictabelts and piano rolls

2 Cylinders  Earliest Format for Recording and Playback of Sound Edison tinfoil recording in 1877 Dominated recording industry into 20th century

3 3 Common Types of Cylinders  Brown Wax or Soft Wax (ca )  Molded or Black Wax (ca )  Celluloid (ca )

4 Brown Wax or Soft Wax (ca )

5  Made to be recordable and re-recordable, therefore are unique  Earliest commercially available were originals  Later copies were commercially available, but in limited quantities  Usually have a waxy feel and smell  Usually are 4 1/8” long and 2 1/8” in outside diameter  Usually held 2 minutes of recording  Fragile, subject to breaking, warping and distortion of grooves in high temperatures

6 Molded or Black Wax (ca )

7  Copies for playback only  Hard compound was more durable and produced louder playback  Some waxy smell  Usually 4” long  Fragile, subject to breaking and distortion

8 Celluloid (ca )

9  Copies for playback only  Advertised as indestructible  Made of nitrocellulose on a hard core Not the same as nitrate film, ignition point is higher But, if ignited in a fire, they are almost impossible to extinguish  Fragile, subject to shrinking and cracking in cold temperatures

10 All Cylinders Are Fragile

11  They are susceptible to: Damage from previous playback or rough handling Differential deterioration that results in breakage Distortion from exposure to heat Mold from exposure to water or high humidity Insect or rodent damage in poor storage conditions

12 Handling  Wear nitrile gloves  Lift from containers by placing two fingers inside the cylinder, press gently to outside  Do not touch the grooved area  Minimize the amount of time fingers are in contact with the cylinder  Carry on a cardboard tube or dowel inserted through center and held with both hands

13 Proper Environment  Clean  Cool  Dry

14 Preferred Containers  Proper orientation: upright on one end Original containers are almost always unsuitable (acidic) Especially if lined with gauze  Rebox in container with a core that supports the cylindrical shape Keep original box with the new one

15 Requires Immediate Attention  All valuable cylinders should be copied before storage Carriers are fragile Playback equipment is increasingly difficult to locate  Cylinders with differing materials in the cores and recording surfaces are at most risk

16 Platters  Early form for recording sound Earliest version announced by Emile Berliner in 1887 (10 years after cylinders) Eventually platters supplanted cylinders for popular use

17 2 Primary Types  Instantaneous Discs (ca. late 1920s-early 1960s)  Commercially Issued Platters (ca. late 1900s-to date)

18 Instantaneous Discs (ca. late 1920s-early 1960s)  Aka, aluminum discs, lacquers, acetates, direct-cut discs, etc.  Recordable, therefore unique  Laminated, metal or glass core covered with a material soft enough to incise, but hard enough to withstand replay several times  Usually are 78s  May play from inside to outer edge  May have handwritten or partially handwritten labels

19 Aluminum Discs (ca. late 1920s-early 1940s)

20  Silver colored  Usually 12” in diameter  May have damage from previous playback or rough handling  May suffer from oxidation that can damage grooves  Fragile, but generally chemically stable

21 Lacquer Discs, mistakenly called Acetates (1934-early 1960s)

22  Usually black nitrocellulose coating on aluminum, glass, or cardboard core  Usually 10”, 12”, 13”, and 16” in diameter  May have damage from previous playback or rough handling  Glass cores are very vulnerable to breakage  Cardboard cores are vulnerable to water damage  Coating is vulnerable to plasticizer exudation and delamination  Very fragile, chemically unstable

23 All Instantaneous Discs are Fragile

24 Commercially Issued Platters (ca. late 1900s-to date)  Earliest recordings were single-sided  Later recordings were two-sided (ca to date)  Usually have a pre-printed label

25 Commercially Issued Platters (ca. late 1900s-to date)

26 Commercially Issued 78s (ca. late 1900s-late 1950s)

27  Usually made of “shellac”  “Shellac” described a number of compounds: shellac, resins, gums, etc.  Usually 10” or 12” in diameter  Platters can become brittle with age  Susceptible to mold from exposure to water or high humidity  Durable, if housed and stored properly

28 Commercially Issued LPs (33 1/3 rpm) and 45s (ca almost to date)

29  LPs usually made of vinyl (polyvinyl chloride)  Usually 10” or 12” diameter  45s usually made of vinyl or polystyrene  Usually 7” in diameter  Susceptible to scratching  Susceptible to warping from exposure to heat  Durable, if housed and stored properly

30 Handling  Wear nitrile gloves  Grasp cover or container by bottom and top to remove from shelf Support container from underneath  Flex sleeve gently to slide platter out of or into sleeve  Do not touch playing surface  Support platter with fingers underneath the center and thumb on edge  Carry on a piece of cardboard that is larger than the platter

31 Proper Environment  Clean  Cool  Dry  Dark

32 Preferred Containers  Proper orientation: upright on the edge  Always remove shrink wrap  Original paper sleeves and covers are almost always unsuitable (acidic) Resleeve in polyethylene or sturdy buffered alkaline paper

33 Preferred Containers  Box in sturdy phonograph boxes Do not overpack Keep original covers and sleeves (if they have information) with the platter Make sure accompanying materials are flat and free of staples, etc.

34 Shelving  If boxing is not possible, resleeve and place on shelves in album covers Opening of new sleeve should be perpendicular to opening of album cover Use full-size dividers 4”-6” apart for support Do not shelve too tightly Do not allow platters to lean Do not lay platters flat

35 Requires Immediate Attention  All valuable instantaneous discs should be copied before storage Carriers are very fragile Playback equipment, especially appropriate styli, is increasingly difficult to locate Lacquer discs are slightly more fragile than aluminum discs

36 Please Contact Us Weissman Preservation Center Jane Hedberg Elizabeth Walters Liz Coffey


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