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Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 1 Fundamentals of Audio Production Chapter Six: Recording, Storing, and Playback of Sound.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 1 Fundamentals of Audio Production Chapter Six: Recording, Storing, and Playback of Sound."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 1 Fundamentals of Audio Production Chapter Six: Recording, Storing, and Playback of Sound

2 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 2 Mechanical storage The phonograph – cylinder recorder/player developed by Thomas Edison.

3 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 3 Mechanical storage Gramophone – Emil Berliner’s disk-based mechanical recorder

4 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 4 Mechanical storage By “shouting into the funnel,” a diaphragm at the small end would vibrate A stylus attached to the diaphragm would vibrate and cut a groove into the cylinder or disk On playback, the stylus would track through the groove, causing vibrations in the diaphragm, which echoed through the funnel

5 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 5 Mechanical storage Modern record cutting lathes use electromagnetic heads to convert audio current into physical vibrations The electromagnets respond to audio current by alternatively pushing/pulling the stylus The vibrating stylus is heated to easily cut a groove in the vinyl disk

6 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 6 Mechanical storage

7 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 7 Mechanical storage

8 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 8 Mechanical storage Modern phonographs use electromagnetic transducers called cartridges Cartridges convert potential physical energy, which is stored in the grooves of the recording, into electrical energy The stylus follows the undulating groove Movements of the stylus, vibrate a small magnet/coil mechanism

9 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 6. 9 Mechanical storage

10 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Magnetic tape recording Magnetic recording heads are transducers that convert electrical energy into magnetic energy Recording heads are electromagnets Audio current creates an alternating magnetic field The magnetic field is focused at the “gap” in the record head

11 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Magnetic tape recording

12 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Magnetic tape recording The fluctuations in the magnetic field are stored on tape by re-arranging the magnetic polarity of the “metal” surface of the tape The tape surface is made from powdered metals, like FeO 2, or iron oxide (rust) The metals are attached to a plastic backing with binder (glue)

13 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Magnetic tape recording Playback heads are constructed in a nearly identical manner During playback, a current is induced to flow in the coil of the head by the magnetic charges of the tape surface

14 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording The paths on the tape where audio is recorded are called “tracks” The inputs on the recorder are called “channels” Stereo formats are two channel, but may be two or four tracks

15 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording

16 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording Tape width and track spacing affect cross talk between tracks Tape speed affects fidelity –Higher tape speeds produce greater signal-to- noise ratios –Higher tape speeds produce wider frequency responses

17 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording The Philips compact cassette and track configuration

18 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording Reel to reel

19 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording Reel to reel

20 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording Cartridges

21 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording Commonalities across tape platforms –Head arrangements First erase, second record, and last reproduce –Capstan and pinch roller squeeze together and pull the tape

22 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Analog tape recording

23 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Digital tape recording Digital audio tape stores binary data (on/off) represented by short bursts of electrical current Stationary head systems (DASH) use reel- to-reel tape transports DAT systems use helical scanning rotating head

24 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Digital tape recording

25 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Optical storage Electrical energy is converted into light energy by a LASER The LASER burns microscopic pits into the surface of a glass disk Binary data (on/off) triggers the LASER

26 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Optical storage

27 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Optical storage Compact disks are read by a LASER Light is refracted into a photoreceptor by “bumps” on the surface of the disk Each pulse of light is equal to an “on” state

28 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Optical storage

29 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Optical storage The pits made by the LASER are.5 microns wide and up to 3.5 microns in length How big is that? Data is stored redundantly on the disk to avoid destruction or obliteration by dirt

30 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Solid state storage “Flash” memory is constructed from layers of layers of conductive and non-conductive materials The layers function as transistors Current is passed through the device’s thousands of transistors If it passes through, it represents an “on” in binary code

31 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Solid state storage

32 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Solid state storage

33 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Discussion What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of –Mechanical –Magnetic –Optical –Solid state


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