Freud vs. Jung FreudJung Personal unconscious Collective unconscious AdaptationProgress
Jung’s Theory of the Unconscious Does not agree with Freud regarding the influence of instincts or the importance of the libido in psychological development (sorry, no psychosexual stages) Major contribution = identification of a collective unconscious: a reservoir of human experiences, or “race memories,” with which all humans are born.
The collective unconscious can be identified through similarities in: the archetypal images and patterns found in world myths and in fairy tales déjà vu experiences love at first sight experiences “near death” experiences
Archetypes : symbols that all humans recognize and understand; “original models” fulfill/represent a human spiritual need can overlap (Hero can be Scapegoat, Wizard can be Mentor, etc.) cannot be altered by our conscious experiences. – archetypal images ---the forms the archetypes take- --can seem distinctive, but the urge for archetypes is such a human imperative, that the same archetypes appear in all cultures: Example, humans always recognize the Hero, but archetypal images of the Hero would be Beowulf, or Odysseus, or Frodo Baggins, depending upon the culture.
Archetypes Hero Villain Shadow Mother (Good and Terrible) Father Child Persona Helpers and Mentors Shapeshifters and Tricksters Self
Archetypal Patterns: The Hero’s Journey The Departure Overcoming Obstacles (Initiation and Transformation ) The Return
The Departure Step 1: The Call to Adventure Invites the Hero into the adventure May be a sudden traumatic change May be a vague sense of discontent.
Can take many forms Something is taken Something is lacking in life Desire to restore honor or to win rights for our people The Hero may initially refuse the call. The Call
The Threshold When called to adventure, we must cross the Threshold. The Threshold is the “jumping off point,” The gateway to the unknown
Threshold Guardians When the Hero reaches the Threshold, he will not be permitted to pass easily; he must earn his passage across. To help him to do that (and to turn less worthy individuals away from the path) is the Threshold Guardian. The job of the Threshold Guardian is to get the hero to rethink whether or not he wishes to proceed on this adventure. To get further on the adventure the hero must somehow overcome. Threshold Guardians are not necessarily good or evil, but their role can be said to always be adversarial to that of the Hero. Threshold Guardians also show up when the hero is trying to get back safely.
Helpers At the threshold, we will encounter helpers. Often they bring a talisman to help us through the ordeal. The most important of these helpers is the Mentor. Helpers and guides appear throughout the journey
Once past the Threshold, we begin the journey into the unknown. The journey can be outward into a physical unknown. The journey can be inward to a psychological unknown.
The Belly of the Whale Named after the story of Jonah and the Whale, this represents the Hero’s first real brush with danger or death.
Overcoming Obstacles: The Road of Trials Any and all of the obstacles and conflicts.
The Magic Flight In myth, this usually does take the form of magical or supernatural power. However, modern works, this aid can be represented by a seemingly mundane means of travel from one place to another, which nevertheless holds great symbolic importance in the work.
Tempters Tempters try to pull us away from our path. They may pretend to be a friend or helper. They use fear, doubt, or distraction.
The Abyss The Abyss represents the greatest challenge in the journey. Here the hero must “slay the dragon,” which often takes the shape of something he dreads, or has repressed, or needs to resolve. In the Abyss the hero faces his worst fear…alone.
Refusal of the Return Sometimes, at the end, the task of returning seems almost too much to bear. The Hero has gone through so much, that he feels he cannot go back to where he began. At this point, the Hero needs Rescue from Without.
Rescue from Without A Helper or Guardian who assists the Hero in returning to the path and completing his journey.
Transformation As the hero conquers the Abyss, his transformation is complete. Like the Phoenix, a part of the hero must die so that a new part can be reborn. Fear must die to make way for courage, Ignorance for enlightenment, dependency for independence
The Revelation Part of the Transformation is a Revelation, a sudden, dramatic change in the way the hero thinks or views life. This change makes him truly a different person.
The Atonement After the Transformation the hero achieves Atonement, that is he is “at one” with his new self. The hero has incorporated the changes caused by the Journey and is “reborn” The “Om” the Hindu symbol of “oneness”
The Return Here, the Hero faces the final stage of his journey: The Return to everyday life.* Upon the return, the Hero discovers his gift. Sometimes he receives a personal reward, but this is not as relevant as the reward he communicates to the community, be it enlightenment, sacrifice, or riches. *Note: Sometimes, the Hero’s return is symbolic, as the Hero himself is dead. However, his example remains and alters society in some positive way.