Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Appositive Relative Clauses and their Prosodic Realization in Spoken Discourse: a Corpus Study of Phonetic Aspects in British English Cyril Auran & Rudy.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Appositive Relative Clauses and their Prosodic Realization in Spoken Discourse: a Corpus Study of Phonetic Aspects in British English Cyril Auran & Rudy."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Appositive Relative Clauses and their Prosodic Realization in Spoken Discourse: a Corpus Study of Phonetic Aspects in British English Cyril Auran & Rudy Loock Laboratoire Savoirs, Textes, Langage Université Lille III – CNRS UMR 8163

3 Introduction Global project: - relate discourse structure/functions & prosody - one specific syntactic structure : Appositive Relative Clauses (ARCs) - differences in pragmatic functions => differences in morphosyntactic and semantic characteristics, and in phonetic/phonological differences

4 Methodology 2 spoken British English corpora: Aix-MARSEC (cf. Auran, Bouzon & Hirst 2004):Aix-MARSEC (cf. Auran, Bouzon & Hirst 2004): BBC recordings from the 1980s 53 different speakers 5h30 of natural sounding but scripted English ICE-GB (cf. Greenbaum 1996):ICE-GB (cf. Greenbaum 1996): 1,000,000 words of written & spoken English from the 1990s Unscripted, spontaneous English sub-corpus Audio files unavailable for the present study

5 Methodology Prosodic marking of elements within Loock’s (2003, 2005, 2006) taxonomy of ARCs depending on their discourse functions: Discourse annotation: discourse function, information status of ARC and MC, syntactic characteristics Discourse annotation: discourse function, information status of ARC and MC, syntactic characteristics Prosodic annotation: semi-automatic analysis of the corresponding recordings using original scripts with Praat Prosodic annotation: semi-automatic analysis of the corresponding recordings using original scripts with Praat Today’s paper : preliminary results and tendencies concerning prosodic characteristics of 2 types of ARCs within Loock’s taxonomy

6 1. Appositive Relative Clauses and their Functions in Discourse Positive definition of ARCs (see (1a) vs. Determinative Relative Clauses (1b)) in terms of discourse functions Positive definition of ARCs (see (1a) vs. Determinative Relative Clauses (1b)) in terms of discourse functions (1)a. The people of Oz, who were scared of the Witch of the East, were relieved when Dorothy’s porch crushed her to death. (ARC) b. The people of Oz who were scared of the Witch of the East were relieved when Dorothy’s porch crushed her to death. (DRC) 3 main categories (see diagram in Proceedings p.20, Fig.1): 3 main categories (see diagram in Proceedings p.20, Fig.1): Relevance ARCsRelevance ARCs Subjectivity ARCsSubjectivity ARCs Continuative ARCsContinuative ARCs

7 1. Appositive Relative Clauses and their Functions in Discourse Relevance ARCs : Relevance ARCs : The speaker needs to convey information known by some of her/his addresees only : need for a compromise to optimize the relevance of the antecedent and/or the subject-predicate relation within the MC for no gratuitous effort (see Sperber & Wilson) (2)a. he was convinced # the battle # for the hearts # and minds of the people # was being won # especially # among the Ovambo # who form the majority # of SWAPO's support b. normally visitors to the state department require credentials # and even then # they have to pass through metal detectors # but twenty year old # Edward Steven Doster # managed to evade the security arrangements # and carry # a collapsible rifle # inside # and up to the seventh floor # where the secretary of state # has his offices

8 1. Appositive Relative Clauses and their Functions in Discourse Subjectivity ARCs : Subjectivity ARCs : The speaker needs to convey information that represents a comment, a judgement, or an assessment, by themselves or somebody else. The ARC establishes a discrepancy with the discourse topic (referential vs. interpretative level). (3) a. Israelis # have sympathy and liking for Americans # which is just as well # since the country is swarming # with transatlantic visitors b. most of them were made of nylon # and imported # which I found very very strange

9 1. Appositive Relative Clauses and their Functions in Discourse Continuative ARCs : Continuative ARCs : Already defined by Jespersen (1970) and Cornilescu (1981) among others but definitions not interchangeableAlready defined by Jespersen (1970) and Cornilescu (1981) among others but definitions not interchangeable Narrate an event successive to a first event (MC) : ‘make narrative time move forward’ with a possible causality link.Narrate an event successive to a first event (MC) : ‘make narrative time move forward’ with a possible causality link. (4)a. northern Scotland will have occasional light rain which will be followed during the day by colder but still mainly cloudy weather # with a few sleet and snow showers b. the first book he took from the library was Darwin's # Origin of Species # which inspired him with the dream of becoming a geologist …/…

10 1. Appositive Relative Clauses and their Functions in Discourse Hierarchisation of the informational contents (ARC+MC) different from other categories: narrative dynamism traditionally restricted to independent clauses (Depraetere 1996), informational contents on the same level Are continuatives independent clauses? (cf. Ross 1967, Emonds 1979, McCawley 1982, Fabb 1990 among others), who express this idea for ARCs as a whole. => Prosodic investigation : are ARCS realized with the intonation contour of an independent or subordinate clause?

11 2. Prosodic analysis | Fundamental prosodic conceptions Di Cristo’s (2000) conception of prosody as a macro-system Di Cristo’s (2000) conception of prosody as a macro-system 4 interrelated but independently analysable acoustically rooted systems (Auran 2004): 4 interrelated but independently analysable acoustically rooted systems (Auran 2004): Tonal aspects Tonal aspects Temporal aspects Temporal aspects Intensity Intensity Voice quality Voice quality

12 2. Prosodic analysis | Prosodic representations Original F0 Resynthesized F0 (MOMEL)

13 2. Prosodic analysis | Prosodic dimensions 2 types of dimensions within prosodic systems: “linear” : succession of F0 ups and downs (or intensity) “orthogonal” dimensions (level and span; cf. Ladd 1996) Differences in levelsDifferences in spans

14 2. Prosodic analysis | Data extractions Discourse annotation Discourse annotation 50 ARCs :50 ARCs : 33 Relevance 33 Relevance 8 Subjectivity 8 Subjectivity 1 Continuative 1 Continuative 4 Relevance/Subjectivity 4 Relevance/Subjectivity 2 Ambiguous continuative 2 Ambiguous continuative 2 Unidentified 2 Unidentified 5 discourse parameters:5 discourse parameters: ARC type ARC type Position (initial/medial/final) Position (initial/medial/final) Information status of antecedent Information status of antecedent Information status of ARC Information status of ARC Phrastic status of antecedent Phrastic status of antecedent

15 2. Prosodic analysis | Data extractions Prosodic annotation : 48 parameters Prosodic annotation : 48 parameters Tonal system (32): ARC mean F0 (Htz + semitones or ST), ARC minimum F0 (Htz + ST), ARC maximum F0 (Htz + ST), ARC register span (Htz + ST), ARC onset (Htz + ST), ARC offset (Htz + ST), previous IU mean F0 (Htz + ST), previous IU minimum F0 (Htz + ST), previous IU maximum F0 (Htz + ST), previous IU register span (Htz + ST), previous IU offset (Htz + ST), next IU mean F0 (Htz + ST), next IU minimum F0 (Htz + ST), next IU maximum F0 (Htz + ST), next IU register span (Htz + ST), next IU onset (Htz + ST), difference between previous IU offset and ARC onset (ST), difference between ARC offset and next IU onset (ST)Tonal system (32): ARC mean F0 (Htz + semitones or ST), ARC minimum F0 (Htz + ST), ARC maximum F0 (Htz + ST), ARC register span (Htz + ST), ARC onset (Htz + ST), ARC offset (Htz + ST), previous IU mean F0 (Htz + ST), previous IU minimum F0 (Htz + ST), previous IU maximum F0 (Htz + ST), previous IU register span (Htz + ST), previous IU offset (Htz + ST), next IU mean F0 (Htz + ST), next IU minimum F0 (Htz + ST), next IU maximum F0 (Htz + ST), next IU register span (Htz + ST), next IU onset (Htz + ST), difference between previous IU offset and ARC onset (ST), difference between ARC offset and next IU onset (ST) Temporal system (10): ARC duration (raw and normalised), previous IU duration (raw and normalised), next IU duration (raw and normalised), difference between previous IU normalised duration and ARC normalised duration, difference between ARC normalised duration and next IU normalised duration, silence duration before ARC, silence duration after ARCTemporal system (10): ARC duration (raw and normalised), previous IU duration (raw and normalised), next IU duration (raw and normalised), difference between previous IU normalised duration and ARC normalised duration, difference between ARC normalised duration and next IU normalised duration, silence duration before ARC, silence duration after ARC Intensity system (6): mean of ARC global intensity, standard deviation of ARC global intensity, mean of previous IU global intensity, standard deviation of previous IU global intensity, mean of next IU global intensity, standard deviation of next IU global intensityIntensity system (6): mean of ARC global intensity, standard deviation of ARC global intensity, mean of previous IU global intensity, standard deviation of previous IU global intensity, mean of next IU global intensity, standard deviation of next IU global intensity = 53 observations per ARC

16 3. Results | ARCs as a whole Tonal aspects: Tonal aspects: Register level in ARCs (-0.61 ST) significantly lower than in preceding (0.21 ST) and following (0.09 ST) IUs = typical of parentheticals (Wichmann 2000) But: Register span in ARCs not significantly different from preceding and following IUs Onset differential displays unusual positive value (mean = 2.24 ST), commonly associated with discourse discontinuity = atypical of parentheticals

17 3. Results | ARCs as a whole Temporal aspects: Temporal aspects: No significant difference in speeh rates between ARCs and preceding/following IUs Intensity: Intensity: No significant differences between ARCs and preceding/following IUs => Complex interplay of production and interpretation constraints : ARCs show characteristics both traditional to and atypical of parentheticals

18 3. Results | Differences between types of ARCs ! Results presented here reflect but tendencies: need for formal statistical testing But results seem to indicate prosodic differences that can be interpreted as differences in discourse functions. In particular, results seem to indicate stronger discourse discontinuity for subjectivity ARCs.

19 3. Results | Differences between types of ARCs Similar register levels and spans: Similar register levels and spans:

20 3. Results | Differences between types of ARCs relevance = 1.80ST subjectivity=2.23ST  Higher onset value for subjectivity ARCs:

21 3. Results | Differences between types of ARCs Similar intensity span values Similar intensity span values Lower intensity level values for subjectivity ARCs (59.78 dB vs dB) Lower intensity level values for subjectivity ARCs (59.78 dB vs dB)

22 3. Results | Differences between types of ARCs Speech rate: Speech rate: Relevance: Relevance: Subjectivity: Subjectivity:

23 4. Discussion Surprisingly atypical characteristics of ARCs as a whole seem to go along with a syntactic behaviour and a semantic interpretation characteristic of independent clauses: Surprisingly atypical characteristics of ARCs as a whole seem to go along with a syntactic behaviour and a semantic interpretation characteristic of independent clauses: register span register span intensity span intensity span speech rate speech rate = typical of classical IUs realizing independent clauses = link with their discourse functions (especially continuative)?

24 4. Discussion Relevance & Subjectivity ARCs show discourse discontinuity through high onset values. Relevance & Subjectivity ARCs show discourse discontinuity through high onset values. Even stronger for subjectivity ARCs : more important rupture with discourse topic Even stronger for subjectivity ARCs : more important rupture with discourse topic cf. shift between referential and interpretative levels : the information conveyed in a subjectivity ARC is somehow more « peripheral » than that in a relevance ARC. Lower intensity level values for subjectivity ARCs: sometimes found within subjective episodes as an idiosyncratic strategy (Di Cristo et al. 2004) Lower intensity level values for subjectivity ARCs: sometimes found within subjective episodes as an idiosyncratic strategy (Di Cristo et al. 2004)

25 4. Discussion Clear-cut differences in speech rates, however, cannot be analysed in terms of discourse functions : influence of a syntactic parameter (sentential or non-sentential antecedent). Clear-cut differences in speech rates, however, cannot be analysed in terms of discourse functions : influence of a syntactic parameter (sentential or non-sentential antecedent). As most subjectivity ARCs qualify a sentential antecedent (9 out of 10), the 2 parameters are difficult to separate. => Further research required

26 5. Conclusion This preliminary study clearly shows that various discourse functions associated with one specific syntactic structure give way to differences in prosodic realization. Prosodic markers can serve as input constraints influencing the pragmatic interpretation of one syntactic structure in discourse.

27 5. Conclusion This work also questions the traditional boundary between independent and embedded clauses, for which ARCs are clearly problematic.

28 5. Conclusion Further research: Extended description of the prosodic characteristics of ARCs in relation to their discourse functions.Extended description of the prosodic characteristics of ARCs in relation to their discourse functions. Tackle the independent/embedded status of ARCs from a prosodic point of view, through the study of continuative ARCs in particular.Tackle the independent/embedded status of ARCs from a prosodic point of view, through the study of continuative ARCs in particular.

29 Thank you for your attention!


Download ppt "Appositive Relative Clauses and their Prosodic Realization in Spoken Discourse: a Corpus Study of Phonetic Aspects in British English Cyril Auran & Rudy."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google