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Introduction Who are we? Who are you? What would you like to gain from the workshop? Defining participation What are we doing today? 10:00 – 10:30.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Who are we? Who are you? What would you like to gain from the workshop? Defining participation What are we doing today? 10:00 – 10:30."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Who are we? Who are you? What would you like to gain from the workshop? Defining participation What are we doing today? 10:00 – 10:30

2 Defining Participation A brief history Why participation? How is it different? Strengths/weaknesses? Defining Participation

3 Best Practice participation as a learning process – Two-way communication empowerment building long-term relationships people involved: – develop mutual trust and respect – learn from each other to negotiate potential solutions Defining Participation

4 Types of Participation Defining Participation

5 Participation in Research Participatory Research Participant Leads What are we Doing? Top-Down Research Researcher Leads Participatory Methods Participants ‘participate’ in methods

6 Participation in Research Participatory Research Participant Leads What are we Doing? Top-Down Research Researcher Leads Participatory Methods Participants ‘participate’ in methods Stirling, 2008, Science, Technology, Human Values 33; p. 262

7 Day Plan TimeSessionTopicsTasks 10:00- 10:30 IntroductionArrival, coffee and workshop aims 10:30- 11:30 Problems and Stakeholders Introduction to research topics Identifying and contacting participants Problems of participation Identify stakeholders and challenges Set a research question 11:30- 12:30 Participatory Tools Overview of tools Matching tools to research aims Implementation challenges Selecting a research tool Planning its use 12:30- 13:30 LUNCH 13:30- 14:30 Using Participatory Methods Consolidation of feedback so far Practicing Participation Implementing your plan 14:30- 15:30 Fitting Participation into the Research Project Key implementation problems and how to address them How to design your research strategy How to use your data. Sharing experiences 15:30- 16:30 Participation in Action Examples of using participatory methods in research Panel discussion and plenary Later PUB What are we Doing?

8 Problems and Stakeholders Introduction to research problems Identifying and characterising stakeholders Identifying and characterising participants 10:30 – 11:30

9 Stakeholders Stakeholders are anyone who can affect or be affected by a decision or action (after Freeman, 1984) Ability to speak and/or act – Roles – Power/influence – Connectivity/visibility Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

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11 Typology Three categories of method for stakeholder analysis: – Identifying stakeholders – Differentiating/categorising – Investigating relationships Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

12 Typology Three categories of method for stakeholder analysis: – Identifying stakeholders – Differentiating/categorising – Investigating relationships Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders Grimble & Wellard, 1997, Agricultural Systems, 55(2), pp. 173-193

13 Practise Analysis MethodTool Identify stakeholdersBrainstorming Differentiating/categorisingInterest-influence matrix Investigating relationshipsVenn diagrams Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

14 Tool 1: Brainstorm stakeholders Make a list of the stakeholders that exist in relation to your case study 5 Mins Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

15 Tool 2: Interest/Influence Matrices High Low Influence Context setters - highly influential, but have little interest. Try and work closely as they could have a significant impact Key players – must work closely with these to affect change Crowd – little interest or influence so may not be worth prioritising, but be aware their interest or influence may change with time Subjects – may be affected but lack power. Can become influential by forming alliances with others. Often includes marginalised groups you may wish to empower Level of InterestHigh 5 Mins Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

16 Step 1: Create circles of different sizes depending on the size of the stakeholder’s power/influence. The larger the circle the more influential the stakeholder. Step 2: Arrange circles so that overlaps represent interaction in the real world. Greater distance between circles lesser the levels interaction. No overlap = no interaction. Step 3: Identify possible conflict – highlight in red somehow (arrows/lines) 5 Mins Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders Tool 3: Venn Diagrams

17 Reflect on your group work… How useful were the tools? Can you think of other possible tools for the same tasks? In the real problem scenario what challenges might you have faced with these tools? (hint – think about theories of participation) 5 Mins Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

18 Stakeholders/Participants Select a research question: – Which stakeholders will you need to involve? – Do you need to categorise them or understand relationships for your research? – How could you do this? (be careful to account for the limitations identified!) 10 Mins Identifying and Characterising Participants

19 Example 1: Moors for the Future Social Network Analysis with 80-strong Moors for the Future Partnership Communication ties between individuals and groups Examine who needs to be involved in planning Identifying and Characterising Participants

20 Despite apparently polarised views on burning, upland stakeholders in the Peak District are highly connected… …and despite the fact that certain groups have little contact with each other…...the majority of individuals perceive considerable overlap between their views on upland management and the views of those they know from other groups. Water RecreationAgriculture Conservation Grouse Identifying and Characterising Participants

21 Despite apparently polarised views on burning, upland stakeholders in the Peak District are highly connected… …and despite the fact that certain groups have little contact with each other…...the majority of individuals perceive considerable overlap between their views on upland management and the views of those they know from other groups. Water RecreationAgriculture Conservation Grouse Identifying and Characterising Participants Prell, Hubacek, Reed, 2009, Society & Natural Resources, 22(6), pp. 501- 518

22 Example 2: Hungarian Water Policy Explaining failed policy enactment Governance actors and their roles Mapped through policy and snowball sampling Identifying and Characterising Participants

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24 Conclusions Stakeholder analysis as research or as a baseline to research Identification and characterisation should be tailored to specific research But beware of the implications of your approach on your research! Stakeholders and participants may not be synonymous (though awareness essential) Identifying and Characterising Participants

25 Participatory Tools Overview of Tools Matching Tools to Research Aims Implementation Challenges 11:30-12:30

26 The Toolbox (2) Overview of Tools

27 The Toolbox (2) Overview of Tools Chambers, R., 1994 World Development. 22, 953-969. Binns, T., 1997, Applied Geography. 17, 1-9

28 Exploratory Tools Community mapping – transect walks Brain-storming - timelines Interviews Overview of Tools Lingen, 1997

29 Analysis Tools Overview of Tools Cause-effect mapping Timeline Interviews Discussion groups

30 Deciding Tools Overview of Tools Scenario planning/mapping Multi-criteria evaluation Interviews

31 Selecting Methods What kind of research are you doing? What information do you need? Which tools might be appropriate? Matching Tools to Aims 10 Mins

32 Key Challenges (1) What happens outside the room? – Power – Knowledge construction – Barriers What happens inside the room? – Your role – Conflicts – Dominance Implementation Challenges

33 Key Challenges (1) What happens outside the room? – Power – Knowledge construction – Barriers What happens inside the room? – Your role – Conflicts – Dominance Implementation Challenges Positionality Knowledge cultures Tippett, et al., 2005, Environmental Science & Policy, 8(3) pp. 287-299 Twyman, et al., 1999, Area, 31(4) pp. 313-325 Williamson & Prosser, 2002, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(5) pp. 587-593

34 Key Challenges (2) Practicalities – Size – Materials – Cost – Timing/Duration – Record keeping Implementation Challenges

35 Key Challenges (2) Practicalities – Size – Materials – Cost – Timing/Duration – Record keeping Implementation Challenges Search on specific methods, possibly more in text books!

36 Strategies What do you want to know? – To what extent do you manage? Plan practicalities – And plan an alternative! Local sensitivity Researcher diary? – Participant diary? Implementation Challenges

37 Strategies What do you want to know? – To what extent do you manage? Plan practicalities – And plan an alternative! Local sensitivity Researcher diary? – Participant diary? Implementation Challenges Glaze, 2002, Reflective Practice, 3(2) pp. 153-166

38 How will you prepare? Mindmap the potential problems with your group. Consider the following categories: – Outside the room – Inside the room – Practicalities Try to identify problems (red) and solutions (green) Try to indicate things you can plan in advance, and things to manage in the event Implementation Challenges 10 Mins

39 Conclusions Consider what data you need to answer your question Consider what tools are suitable for your participants Design your ‘event’ so that outcomes are meaningful – before and during Implementation Challenges

40 Using Participatory Methods Consolidation of feedback so far Practicing participation 1:30-2:30

41 Questions? Do you feel ready to implement your plan? Do you understand how your plan fits in to your research? Consolidation of feedback so far

42 Go! Two groups team up Chose one plan and give it a go – You can decide how many participants/facilitators Practising Participation 15 Mins

43 Swap! Swap over and enact the other group’s plan Practising Participation 15 Mins

44 Compare Have you done things differently? Why? What were the strengths and weaknesses? What would you change? Do you think this method could be used in your PhD research? – How would it fit with your wider aims/approach? Practising Participation 15 Mins

45 Fitting Participatory Methods into the Research Plan Key implementation challenges (and how to address them) How to design your research strategy How to use your data 2:30-3:30

46 What if...? One participant dominates? Key implementation challenges

47 What if...? One participant dominates? – Skilled facilitation – Ask (yourself) why they are dominating – Find a way to draw out other voices (later?) Key implementation challenges

48 What if...? The group is massive? Key implementation challenges

49 What if...? The group is massive? – Sub-groups? Mixed stakeholders or thematic? – Assistants (consider data consistency) – Sporadic integration Key implementation challenges

50 What if...? No one stays ‘on-topic’? You realise your approach is meaningless? Key implementation challenges

51 What if...? No stays ‘on-topic’? You realise your approach is meaningless? – Let your participants guide your research – Ask (yourself) why your approach is not working Key implementation challenges

52 What if...? The situation changes? Key implementation challenges

53 What if...? The situation changes? – Consider drivers for change – Study reactions – Relate back to research aims – Changes are results! Key implementation challenges

54 What if...? You have a ‘rogue’ assistant? Key implementation challenges

55 What if...? You have a ‘rogue’ assistant? – Careful screening and training – Agree key words and definitions – Briefing and De-briefing – Contracts Key implementation challenges Barrett, C.B., & Cason, J. W., 1997, Overseas Research a Practical Guide, Baltimore, The John Hopkins University Press.

56 When to implement? How do you think participatory research fits (or doesn’t) your research topic? What strengths of participatory methods will be useful for your research? What information do you want to collect from participatory methods? Research approach or tool? Designing your research strategy

57 When to implement? Reductive, deductive or iterative? Designing your research strategy

58 When to implement? Reductive, deductive or iterative? Designing your research strategy See Chambers on sequencing

59 What is the data? What data did you collect from your practise? Are there other data you could use? Can you refine your practise to generate other data forms? How to use your data 10 Mins

60 What is the data? Data from the process and the outcomes Passive – Filming/recording – Observing Active – Summaries – Diaries – Follow-up interviews How to use your data

61 Analysis Decide, explore or analyse? – Accept as representation or further analysis? Text or depiction? Triangulation? How to use your data

62 Analysis Decide, explore or analyse? – Accept as representation or further analysis? Text or depiction? Triangulation? How to use your data Analysis: Discourse, Narrative, Content, etc. Tools: NVIVO, AtlasTi, Referencing Software(?)

63 Examples of Participation in Research Plenary Learn from our mistakes! 3:30-4:30


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