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Unit III Part 4 Post-War America. The Revolution Within America LOYALISTS LOYALISTS Were looked upon as traitors Were looked upon as traitors Generally.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit III Part 4 Post-War America. The Revolution Within America LOYALISTS LOYALISTS Were looked upon as traitors Were looked upon as traitors Generally."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit III Part 4 Post-War America

2 The Revolution Within America LOYALISTS LOYALISTS Were looked upon as traitors Were looked upon as traitors Generally belonged to the wealthier classes Generally belonged to the wealthier classes Were barred from teaching, legal, medical professions Were barred from teaching, legal, medical professions Had to take oaths of loyalty to vote Had to take oaths of loyalty to vote Some banished, tarred and feathered, killed by mobs Some banished, tarred and feathered, killed by mobs

3 Loyalists Some went to Canada Some went to Canada Some went to Britain Some went to Britain They will NOT be compensated for their losses in spite of what the Treaty of Paris said They will NOT be compensated for their losses in spite of what the Treaty of Paris said BUT other than the loyalists, there was no revolution in America (no class warfare) BUT other than the loyalists, there was no revolution in America (no class warfare)

4 Indians Some uprisings Some uprisings Some fought with the British Some fought with the British More disunity among tribes More disunity among tribes Colonial resentment because some DID fight for the British Colonial resentment because some DID fight for the British Some (Jefferson) paternalistic toward natives Some (Jefferson) paternalistic toward natives Called them “noble Savages” (Columbus) Called them “noble Savages” (Columbus)

5 Women: War had no Impact Some ran things at home very well Some ran things at home very well Others lost the farm Others lost the farm Some were camp followers Some were camp followers Some in combat Some in combat Judith Murray worked for more educational opportunities for women Judith Murray worked for more educational opportunities for women Abigail Adams: Remember the ladies Abigail Adams: Remember the ladies Overall: no real change Overall: no real change

6 Slaves 1782 Virginia Law: slave owners COULD free their slaves if they wished 1782 Virginia Law: slave owners COULD free their slaves if they wished The Revolutionary War = END OF SLAVERY IN THE NORTH The Revolutionary War = END OF SLAVERY IN THE NORTH Most through Compensated Emancipation Most through Compensated Emancipation 1783 Mass. Supreme Ct. under the new State Constitution: ownership of human beings was illegal 1783 Mass. Supreme Ct. under the new State Constitution: ownership of human beings was illegal

7 Who Suffered as a Result of the War? The Anglican Church (Loyalists) The Anglican Church (Loyalists) Anyone on a fixed salary Anyone on a fixed salary Town Wage earners Town Wage earners Continental Soldiers Continental Soldiers Creditors: went into hiding to avoid being paid back with worthless currency Creditors: went into hiding to avoid being paid back with worthless currency Some states had wage and price controls Some states had wage and price controls By 1777 Continental Congress had wage and price controls By 1777 Continental Congress had wage and price controls

8 Who Profited from the War? The Catholic Church due to the French alliance The Catholic Church due to the French alliance Farmers: produce was in demand Farmers: produce was in demand Merchants and Privateers Merchants and Privateers

9 Overall Other than oppressed Loyalists, internal revolution was non violent Other than oppressed Loyalists, internal revolution was non violent Lack of class distinction in America Lack of class distinction in America No class of oppressed peasants No class of oppressed peasants Wide distribution of property Wide distribution of property

10 Influence of the Revolution Gave hope to oppressed in Europe Gave hope to oppressed in Europe Endangered monarchies everywhere Endangered monarchies everywhere Endangered privileged classes everywhere Endangered privileged classes everywhere French Revolution 1789 French Revolution 1789 Growth of American Nationalism Growth of American Nationalism Lack of British trade inspired more American manufacturing Lack of British trade inspired more American manufacturing

11 Influence of the Revolution Discredited George III Discredited George III Parliament took steps to limit monarch’s power Parliament took steps to limit monarch’s power Britain’s other colonies given more self- government Britain’s other colonies given more self- government Catherine the Great: Rather than have granted America her independence as my brother monarch, King George has done, I would have fired a pistol at my own head! Catherine the Great: Rather than have granted America her independence as my brother monarch, King George has done, I would have fired a pistol at my own head!

12 New State Governments and Constitutions (not Conn. And RI) Drawn up by state Constitutional Conventions; not by state legislatures Drawn up by state Constitutional Conventions; not by state legislatures Included Locke’s ideas: Included Locke’s ideas: Governments should serve the people Governments should serve the people Distrust of a strong executive (most governors in for one year terms Distrust of a strong executive (most governors in for one year terms Right to vote depended on property ownership Right to vote depended on property ownership More restrictions for holding office More restrictions for holding office

13 New National Heroes Washington, Jefferson, Franklin Washington, Jefferson, Franklin John Paul Jones John Paul Jones Francis Marion, Nathan Hale Francis Marion, Nathan Hale New Patriotic songs New Patriotic songs John Trumbull: Patriotic painter John Trumbull: Patriotic painter Noah Webster: unique American Speller Noah Webster: unique American Speller John M’Cullock: first American History Book John M’Cullock: first American History Book Morse: American Geography Book Morse: American Geography Book Kings College renamed Columbia Kings College renamed Columbia

14 The Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 As early as 1775 Benjamin Franklin proposed The Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union As early as 1775 Benjamin Franklin proposed The Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union It was rejected by several colonies and the Second CC It was rejected by several colonies and the Second CC June 1776: Second CC established a committee of 13 to draft a constitution June 1776: Second CC established a committee of 13 to draft a constitution Leaders: Dickenson, J. Adams, Rutledge, Sherman, Livingston Leaders: Dickenson, J. Adams, Rutledge, Sherman, Livingston

15 The Articles completed in one month Borrowed some from Franklin’s plan Borrowed some from Franklin’s plan Would go into effect when all 13 states signed on Would go into effect when all 13 states signed on Large states did not like the one-house legislature Large states did not like the one-house legislature Small states feared being overwhelmed by states with western land claims Small states feared being overwhelmed by states with western land claims

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17 By 1779 Twelve states had signed on Maryland held out for two years Maryland held out for two years Wanted the states with western claims to give up the claims to the federal government Wanted the states with western claims to give up the claims to the federal government When they did, Maryland signed on When they did, Maryland signed on

18 Structure of the Articles No Executive Branch: Representatives feared a strong central government (like Britain) No Executive Branch: Representatives feared a strong central government (like Britain) No Judicial Branch: so no final authority if State Supreme Courts disagreed No Judicial Branch: so no final authority if State Supreme Courts disagreed Unicameral Legislature: One representative from each state (so the small states were over represented) Unicameral Legislature: One representative from each state (so the small states were over represented)

19 Powers of the Legislature To wage war and Peace To wage war and Peace To make treaties and alliances (commercial too) To make treaties and alliances (commercial too) To establish a postal system To establish a postal system To handle Indian Relations To handle Indian Relations To coin money To coin money To establish standard weights and measures To establish standard weights and measures States respected each others’ public acts: wills, licenses, no passports between states needed States respected each others’ public acts: wills, licenses, no passports between states needed

20 BUT…Powers were empty because There was no power to tax or draft troops! There was no power to tax or draft troops! How could the government make war or enforce treaties? How could the government make war or enforce treaties? How could the government buy Indian land or take it from them? How could the government buy Indian land or take it from them? How do we pay postal workers? How do we pay postal workers? Disaster! Disaster!

21 Other problems… 9 states were needed to pass laws so few passed 9 states were needed to pass laws so few passed Could not control interstate commerce Could not control interstate commerce Had no specie so no national currency Had no specie so no national currency States had their own currencies so interstate trade cam to a standstill since all $ of different values! States had their own currencies so interstate trade cam to a standstill since all $ of different values! Could not even keep the peace at home without a national army (no draft or $ to pay soldiers) Could not even keep the peace at home without a national army (no draft or $ to pay soldiers)

22 Foreign Affairs under the Articles We did not want to become involved in European problems BUT We did not want to become involved in European problems BUT We needed foreign trade We needed foreign trade Treaties were needed to make boundaries with Spanish Florida and British Canada Treaties were needed to make boundaries with Spanish Florida and British Canada Congress could not make binding commercial treaties because it could not control interstate commerce Congress could not make binding commercial treaties because it could not control interstate commerce Congress could not enforce treaties with other countries without an army Congress could not enforce treaties with other countries without an army

23 Britain Both America and England violated the Treaty of Paris Both America and England violated the Treaty of Paris Brits did not compensate slave owners Brits did not compensate slave owners Brits would not vacate the forts in America and even built new ones! Brits would not vacate the forts in America and even built new ones! We could not MAKE them leave without an army We could not MAKE them leave without an army Brits would not trade with us…planned a trade war…we were banned from the British West Indies! Brits would not trade with us…planned a trade war…we were banned from the British West Indies! Brits would not even see John Adams (our ambassador) Brits would not even see John Adams (our ambassador) We could only enter British ports with ships from home states We could only enter British ports with ships from home states

24 Spain Spanish felt threatened by our extended boundaries (the West and Spanish Florida) Spanish felt threatened by our extended boundaries (the West and Spanish Florida) They armed the Indians against us They armed the Indians against us We really needed the Right of Deposit at the mouth of New Orleans for our western trade We really needed the Right of Deposit at the mouth of New Orleans for our western trade Jay-Gardoqui Treaty: Spain would let us trade with the Spanish West Indies if we gave up our claim to the Right of Deposit Jay-Gardoqui Treaty: Spain would let us trade with the Spanish West Indies if we gave up our claim to the Right of Deposit We did NOT ratify treaty. Would have sacrificed the West for the sake of New England trade We did NOT ratify treaty. Would have sacrificed the West for the sake of New England trade

25 France We could not pay them back We could not pay them back Was embarrassing (especially to Jefferson…our ambassador) Was embarrassing (especially to Jefferson…our ambassador) Our lack of payment probably DID contribute to the French Revolution Our lack of payment probably DID contribute to the French Revolution They did not enjoy much of our trade They did not enjoy much of our trade We were trading with Brits by 1789 like there had never been a war We were trading with Brits by 1789 like there had never been a war

26 The Barbary Pirates! Remember: to err is human. To AARRGH is Pirate. Remember: to err is human. To AARRGH is Pirate. The US could not pay tribute to pirates on the coast of North Africa The US could not pay tribute to pirates on the coast of North Africa While we were British colonies, the Brits paid the tribute for us While we were British colonies, the Brits paid the tribute for us Americans who were caught trading in Mediterranean were kidnapped and held for ransom which we could not pay…embarrassing! Americans who were caught trading in Mediterranean were kidnapped and held for ransom which we could not pay…embarrassing! We had no navy! We had no navy!

27 The West First hunters and trappers First hunters and trappers Then temporary homesteads Then temporary homesteads Finally permanent settlers: Saloons, Brothels then schools, churches mills Finally permanent settlers: Saloons, Brothels then schools, churches mills By 1790 120,000 were west of the Appalachians By 1790 120,000 were west of the Appalachians

28 Western Problems Starvation, disease, temperature extremes Starvation, disease, temperature extremes British in forts, Indians, right of deposit needed British in forts, Indians, right of deposit needed No money to move Brits, fight Indians (or buy their land) to MAKE Spain give up the right of deposit No money to move Brits, fight Indians (or buy their land) to MAKE Spain give up the right of deposit Absentee landowners (speculators) Absentee landowners (speculators) Some talk of succession Some talk of succession

29 BUT Articles did take care of Land survey and sale with The Land Ordinance of 1785 Land survey and sale with The Land Ordinance of 1785 And the political development of Western land with the Northwest Ordinance And the political development of Western land with the Northwest Ordinance

30 The Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for land survey and sale (the only $ that the Articles were bringing into the federal treasury) Provided for land survey and sale (the only $ that the Articles were bringing into the federal treasury) Land to be measured first and then sold Land to be measured first and then sold Adopted the New England method Adopted the New England method Land was divided into 6 square miles called townships then redivided into 36 sections Land was divided into 6 square miles called townships then redivided into 36 sections

31 Land Ordinance of 1785 Four sections reserved as federal land BUT one of those could be sold to provide for a school Four sections reserved as federal land BUT one of those could be sold to provide for a school Other 32 sections were redivided and sold for $1 an acre and you had to buy at least 640 acres (pricey) Other 32 sections were redivided and sold for $1 an acre and you had to buy at least 640 acres (pricey) Most of the best of it went to land speculators Most of the best of it went to land speculators

32 The land belonged to the Indians! Some Indians signed agreements willingly, some were coerced, some fought Some Indians signed agreements willingly, some were coerced, some fought Don’t forget…Spanish AND British were giving Indians weapons to use against us Don’t forget…Spanish AND British were giving Indians weapons to use against us General St. Clair was fighting Indians in the NW territory unsuccessfully…could not pay army and no $ for ammo, horses, etc. General St. Clair was fighting Indians in the NW territory unsuccessfully…could not pay army and no $ for ammo, horses, etc.

33 The Northwest Ordinance (1787) Provided for the political development of the land between the Ohio River, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Provided for the political development of the land between the Ohio River, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi No fewer than 3 states but no more than 5 No fewer than 3 states but no more than 5 When the white male population reached 5,000 a territorial government could be set up: people could elect a legislature but the federal government would provide for a governor and a secretary and 3 judges When the white male population reached 5,000 a territorial government could be set up: people could elect a legislature but the federal government would provide for a governor and a secretary and 3 judges

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35 The Northwest Territory When the population reached 60,000 the territory could apply to become a state if… When the population reached 60,000 the territory could apply to become a state if… … the state constitution guaranteed freedom of speech, freedom of religion and if the constitution forbade slavery … the state constitution guaranteed freedom of speech, freedom of religion and if the constitution forbade slavery NOTE: the NW Ordinance was the first federal legislation that forbade slavery. NOTE: the NW Ordinance was the first federal legislation that forbade slavery.

36 The Articles failed to handle domestic problems: Boundary disputes: Conn v Penn, Mass. v NY v NH Boundary disputes: Conn v Penn, Mass. v NY v NH Oyster Wars : Virginia and Maryland The governors were in row boats shooting at each other! Oyster Wars : Virginia and Maryland The governors were in row boats shooting at each other! Currencies of states were different so little trade Currencies of states were different so little trade

37 Inflation and Debt Money flowed out of the country for finished goods Money flowed out of the country for finished goods Huge debt to foreigners, citizens and soldiers Huge debt to foreigners, citizens and soldiers Many lobbied for import duties: Hamilton, Madison, Morris but too much opposition Many lobbied for import duties: Hamilton, Madison, Morris but too much opposition State taxes were heavy State taxes were heavy Soldiers who WERE NOT PAID returned to their farms and lost them because they could not pay the state taxes Soldiers who WERE NOT PAID returned to their farms and lost them because they could not pay the state taxes Farmers were lost unless currency was inflated Farmers were lost unless currency was inflated

38 Shays’s Rebellion 1786 Was the last straw Was the last straw Proof that the government needed to be stronger to keep domestic peace Proof that the government needed to be stronger to keep domestic peace Background: In Mass. The wealthy took over state government Background: In Mass. The wealthy took over state government Wanted to clear out state debt Wanted to clear out state debt Really heavy taxes on farmers (who had not been paid as soldiers) Really heavy taxes on farmers (who had not been paid as soldiers)

39 Daniel Shays Had been a continental soldier Had been a continental soldier Lafayette awarded Shays his own jewel- encrusted sword for his valiant fighting! Lafayette awarded Shays his own jewel- encrusted sword for his valiant fighting! His wife had somehow hung on to the farm His wife had somehow hung on to the farm Shays sold his sword for food Shays sold his sword for food Many farmers in Mass lost their farms or were jailed because they could not pay their taxes to the state Many farmers in Mass lost their farms or were jailed because they could not pay their taxes to the state

40 Shays’s Rebellion Shays and another 1,000 unhappy farmers tried and failed to take the arsenal (Mass.) Shays and another 1,000 unhappy farmers tried and failed to take the arsenal (Mass.) Demanded: paper money (for inflation), tax relief, a moratorium on debts, and wanted the state capital moved Demanded: paper money (for inflation), tax relief, a moratorium on debts, and wanted the state capital moved Mass. Militia was able to put down the rebellion. Mass. Militia was able to put down the rebellion. The Federal government had no troops The Federal government had no troops

41 Too Much Democracy? Many of the wealthy, propertied people thought that Shays Rebellion was proof of too much democracy Many of the wealthy, propertied people thought that Shays Rebellion was proof of too much democracy Believed that the Federal government needed to be stronger Believed that the Federal government needed to be stronger EVERYONE believed that at the very least, the Articles of Confederation needed revision EVERYONE believed that at the very least, the Articles of Confederation needed revision BUT in the end we will form a brand new government under the Constitution that we have today. BUT in the end we will form a brand new government under the Constitution that we have today.

42 The Question: The Articles of Confederation provided for an effective government in the years 1781- 1789. Assess the validity of the above.

43 Think Did the Articles of Confederation help us with our dealings with foreign countries and peoples? Did the Articles of Confederation help us with our dealings with foreign countries and peoples? Britain…forts and trade Britain…forts and trade Spain…right of deposit and Jay-Gardoque Treaty Spain…right of deposit and Jay-Gardoque Treaty France…debt France…debt Barbary Pirates…tribute and ransome Barbary Pirates…tribute and ransome

44 Think Again: Did the Articles of Confederation allow us to deal with domestic problems effectively? Did the Articles of Confederation allow us to deal with domestic problems effectively? Indians …General St. Clair Indians …General St. Clair Economic issues…currency issues Economic issues…currency issues Post office Post office Shays’s Rebellion…too much democracy? Shays’s Rebellion…too much democracy? Interstate rivalry…boundaries and Oyster Wars Interstate rivalry…boundaries and Oyster Wars

45 Think Again Were the Articles of Confederation flawed in their structure? Were the Articles of Confederation flawed in their structure? No executive and judicial No executive and judicial Unicameral legislature Unicameral legislature Could not tax or draft Could not tax or draft Needed 9 state to pass laws Needed 9 state to pass laws Smaller states were over represented Smaller states were over represented

46 Okay…they were NOT effective BUT What DID they do effectively? What DID they do effectively? They provided for the survey and sale and political development of Western Lands: They provided for the survey and sale and political development of Western Lands: The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Northwest Ordinance (1787) The Northwest Ordinance (1787)


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