Presentation on theme: "HIV, Stigma and Me November 8, 2012 For Audio: Dial-in#: 866.394.2346 Participant Code: 397 154 6368#"— Presentation transcript:
HIV, Stigma and Me November 8, 2012 For Audio: Dial-in#: 866.394.2346 Participant Code: 397 154 6368#
2 Welcome & Overview- 5 mins The Stigma of HIV/AIDS – 30 mins Panel Discussion on Stigma, 20 mins Wrap-up & Evaluation, 5 mins Michael Hager in+care Campaign Manager National Quality Center New York, NY firstname.lastname@example.org Conversation opportunities throughout webinar Agenda
3 For more information: www.incarecampaign.org This Partners in+care webinar is offered as part of the in+care Campaign. The in+care Campaign is a national effort to improve retention in HIV care. Webinars are one of many Partners in+care activities designed to engage people living with HIV/AIDS and their allies in the in+care Campaign. Welcome & Overview
4 This is a “public event.” If you have confidentiality concerns: Your names appear on-line in the list of webinar registrants -consider just listening to the audio or to viewing the webinar at a later time, after it is posted at www.incarecampaign.org All webinars are recorded - do not use identifying information when asking questions Participation Guidelines For Audio: Dial-in#: 866.394.2346 Participant Code: 397 154 6368#
5 Actively participate and write your questions into the chat area during the presentation; we will also have a “pop up” question exercise, and will pause for conversation during the webinar Do not put us on hold Mute your line if you are not speaking (press *6, to unmute your line press #6) The slides and recording of this and other Partners in+care webinars are available for playback and group presentations at www.incarecampaign.org – “Resources” tabwww.incarecampaign.org For Audio: Dial-in#: 866.394.2346 Participant Code: 397 154 6368# Participation Guidelines
6 Learning Objectives At the end of this webinar you will know: What is stigma Characteristics of different types of stigma Examples of how stigma affects Persons Living with HIV How to combat stigma-related barriers in HIV care
7 Visit www.incarecampaign.org Pop-up Question Yes No I am not HIV+ How great a factor is stigma in HIV care? Has stigma ever kept you from accessing your clinical HIV services?
8 Visit www.incarecampaign.org Pop-up Question Yes No I don’t know HIV Stigma and Me - Our Goal Do you think that we can overcome stigma even if we can’t eliminate it?
9 The Stigma of HIV/AIDS What is stigma? A theoretical analysis of four manifestations of stigma Applying this theory to HIV-related stigma: Public Stigma Self-Stigma Stigma by Association Structural Stigma Common elements of effective interventions – what works? John B. Pryor, PhD Distinguished Professor of Psychology Illinois State University Normal, IL email@example.com
10 What is Stigma? The term stigma can be traced to the Ancient Greeks who used tattoos, scars, or brands to mark slaves, deserters, or criminals as people of reproach and disgrace. Goffman (1963) described stigma as a sign or mark designating the bearer as spoiled, flawed, or compromised—someone less than fully human. More recently, Dovidio, Major, & Crocker (2000) defined stigma as "a social construction that involves at least two fundamental components: (1) the recognition of difference based on some distinguishing characteristic, or 'mark'; and (2) a consequent devaluation of the person” (p. 3).
11 Three Social Psychological Functions of Stigma (Phelan, Link, & Dovidio, 2008) To keep people down – stigmas help to legitimize and perpetuate social inequities (i.e., provide justification for the exploitation and dominance of lower status groups) To make people conform - stigmas help to enforce social norms by serving as a punishment to those who choose non-conformity To keep people away – stigmas trigger avoidance responses to a broad class of deviant human characteristics that potentially signal risk of infection
12 Four Manifestations of Stigma (Pryor & Reeder, 2011) 1)Public stigma – people’s social and psychological reactions to someone with a perceived stigma 2) Self-stigma – how one reacts to the possession of a stigma 3) Stigma by association – social and psychological reactions to people who are somehow associated with a stigmatized person or how people react to being associated with a stigmatized person 4) Structural stigma – the legitimatization and perpetuation of a stigmatized status by society’s institutions and ideological systems
13 A Dynamic Model of the Four Manifestations of Stigma Stigma by Association Stigma by Association Public Stigma Public Stigma Self- Stigma Self- Stigma Structural Stigma Structural Stigma
14 Applying the Stigma Model to HIV
15 Public Stigma Social psychologists view negative reactions to a perceived stigma as a form of prejudice. Prejudice is essentially a negative attitude toward people perceived to be members of an out-group. Stigmatized out-groups often have less social power than in- groups. US THEM
16 Tri-Part Conceptual Model of Public Stigma Cognitive Component Behavioral Component Affective Component
17 Cognitive Components of Reactions to Perceived HIV-Related Stigma Stereotypes about PLWHA Connections to sexual orientation and drug use Beliefs about blame Belief that bad things happen to bad people Conceptions of risk and transmission Risks associated with casual contact Beliefs about prejudice Are negative reactions to PLWHA seen as a form of prejudice?
18 Affective (emotional) components of reactions to perceived HIV-related Stigma Affective reactions can be positive (e.g., compassion, empathy) or negative (e.g., fear, disgust, anger, etc.) Affective reactions can be automatic (spontaneous or reflexive) or derived from conscious deliberation
19 Behavioral components of reactions to perceived HIV-related stigma Avoidance (or approach) – a general behavioral tendency Harassment, ridicule, & ostracism Discrimination Employment Housing Educational opportunities Access to medical care Insurance Pro-social behavior – the flip side of discrimination – social support Support for public policies Coercive policies Anti-discrimination policies
20 What is self- stigma?
21 Self-stigma – derived from enacted (actual) or perceived (anticipated) social experiences Related to knowledge of public reactions to stigma – reflected appraisals of others Label avoidance Avoiding HIV testing Avoiding disclosure of HIV status Avoiding treatment Avoiding safer sex Withdrawal from situations where ill treatment might occur – social isolation Internalization of the negative label Reduction of self-esteem & self-efficacy Hopelessness and depression Reduced Immune functioning
22 Stigma by Association Goffman called this courtesy stigma To some degree all of the public stigma reactions to PLWHA are also experienced by uninfected people who are somehow associated with PLWHA HIV-related stigma affects families – shame & disclosure concerns Stigma-by-Association contributes to burnout among care-givers and health care providers Being associated with a PLWHA may contribute to psychological distress Concern about stigma by association contributes to social avoidance
23 Examples of stigmatizing government laws and policies in the U.S. Until recently the U.S. government banned individuals with HIV from entering the United States as tourists, workers or immigrants The U.S. Foreign Service still refuses to hire applicants with HIV. The Transportation Security Administration has refused to hire applicants who are HIV+. 34 states and 2 U.S. territories have criminal statutes based on perceived exposure to HIV, and prosecutions for alleged exposure to HIV have occurred in at least 39 states. Structural Stigma
24 Examples of stigmatizing government laws and policies in the U.S. Public stigma toward persons living with HIV/AIDS is related to the perceived connections of HIV/AIDS to other stigmas (e.g., homosexuality) Policies of private and governmental institutions that have a negative impact people with these related stigmas also serve to legitimize and perpetuate HIV-related stigma Structural Stigma
25 African Americans MSM IV Drug Users Stigmas Related to HIV in the US
26 African Americans MSM IV Drug Users Societal Responses to Related Stigmas in the US Sexual Prejudice Racism Criminalization of drug addiction
27 Related Structural Stigma in the United States Sexual prejudice – state laws in the US banning gay marriage, Federal Defense of Marriage Act Institutional racism – 1 in 7 US Black men between ages 25 & 29 are in prison Criminalization of Drug Addiction – Although the Federal funding ban on syringe exchange was rescinded recently, syringe exchange remains illegal in 15 states
28 Is it possible?
29 Some Common Sense steps in Conducting a Stigma Reduction Intervention 1)Identify the manifestations you want to target 2)Specify how you will measure stigma reduction 3)Identify some effective components of past interventions 4)Taylor intervention components to your audience 5)Evaluate your intervention’s outcomes and be prepared to adjust your ongoing plan
30 Components of Effective Interventions Education – just the facts…“HIV 101”…still important in 2012 (for all manifestations) Counseling – one-on-one & support groups, helping people cope with HIV as a disease and as a stigma (self-stigma & stigma-by-association) Coping Skills Acquisition – master imagery and group desensitization are two techniques for acquiring coping skills (public stigma) Contact with PLWHA – one-on-one, with a public speaker, or through media (public stigma)
31 Take Home Messages of Today’s Talk 1.Stigma is a multi-dimensional concept. Public stigma, self- stigma, stigma by association, and structural stigma represent different, but inter-related manifestations of stigma. 2.While public stigma is theorized to be pivotal to the other manifestations of stigma more research is needed that examines the inter-relationships empirically. 3.Stigma reduction interventions should identify specific manifestions of stigma for potential change and include evaluation measures that are appropriate
32 Stigma and Retention in Care Panel Discussion - Introduction John B. Pryor, PhD Distinguished Professor of Psychology Illinois State University Normal, IL firstname.lastname@example.org Kathleen Clanon, MD Medical Director Health Program of Alameda County Long time HIV Specialist Physician Oakland, CA email@example.com Adam Thompson Peer Consultant National Quality Center PLWH Charlottesville, VA AdamTThompson@gmail.com
33 Let us know your experiences in the chat room! What is one way we can reduce the impact of HIV-related stigma in ourselves, and our clinics and communities? Speaking from Experience: Stigma in HIV/AIDS Care
34 Let us know your experiences in the chat room! What change is needed to ensure that HIV-related stigma does not keep persons from accessing clinical care? Speaking from Experience: Stigma in HIV/AIDS Care
35 Visit www.incarecampaign.org Pop-up Question More likely than before I watched this program No more or less likely than before I watched this program Less likely than before I watched this program Working in a Stigmatizing World How likely are you to reevaluate the way you combat stigma in your life and clinic?
36 Campaign Headquarters: National Quality Center (NQC) 90 Church Street, 13 th floor New York, NY 10007 Phone 212-417-4730 Visit Web / Open the Toolkit www.incarecampaign.org - “Partners” tab www.incarecampaign.org Sign up for Partners in+care Network www.incarecampaign.org – “Partners” tab www.incarecampaign.org Join Facebook Send email to incare@NationalQualityCenter.org – “Facebook” in subject line incare@NationalQualityCenter.org Partners in+care Resources