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200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 Parte desta frase está em português, and part is in.

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Presentation on theme: "200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 Parte desta frase está em português, and part is in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parte desta frase está em português, and part is in English Raspberries never Least not to me. Donuts? Can’t trust ‘em…they’ll Try to kill ya! Why can’t we have sugar in our class? Because we turn into Psychotic Chipmunks That’s why ! 9 outa 10 tigers Say that kids make Grrrreat snacks ! Don’t look in this category Whatever you do! Seriously! I knew you’d look…so Predicatable. It’s sad really.

2 1-What do blood type and hair color, and have in common? 2-How about skin color and eye color?

3 1-Blood type and hair color are multi-allelic traits (they’re determined by MULTIPLE ALLELES). 2-Skin color (at least 3 genes) and eye color are polygenic (multiple gene) traits.

4 How are mitosis and meiosis similar? How are they different?

5 Mitosis 1.Asexual 2.Body cells (occurs in all organisms) 3.Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase 4.Results in two daughter cells. 5.New cells have normal number of chromosomes (2N-diploid) 6.New cells fully functional Meiosis 1.Sexual 2.Gametes (animals and plants) 3.Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase…twice! 4.Results in four daughter cells. 5.New cells w/ ½ normal number of chromosomes (N-haploid). 6.New cells need to combine with another gamete before they’re fully functional.

6 What are GMO’s and what’s the big deal?

7 GMO = Genetically Modified Organism These are organisms that have been in some way altered by humans. It can be by choosing which organism breeds with another (SELECTIVE BREEDING) It can be the actual manipulation of an organism’s DNA (GENETIC ENGINEERING) Good? Bad? Both? Well…you gotta educate yourself cuz…this is REAL YO!

8 Colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive trait. What do the genotypes of each parent of a colorblind child have? Why do males have a greater chance of being colorblind?

9 At least one recessive allele. The allele is linked to the X chromosome. Males are XY. If a male gets the recessive allele there is no chance of getting a dominant allele that will mask it.

10 What happens to cause Down syndrome?

11 One of the chromosome fails to separate properly during meiosis (meiotic disjunction). This results in one extra chromosome in pair #21. This is known as TRISOMY 21.

12 What causes genetic disorders such as sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and PKU?

13 Mutations…the order of the nucleotides is somehow changed.

14 What is a pedigree?

15 A chart that tracks the occurrence of a trait in a particular family.

16 What is hemophilia?

17 A sex-linked, autosomal genetic disorder that prevents blood from clotting the way it should. *”Autosomal” refers to any of the chromosomes other that the 23 rd pair.

18 What is cystic fibrosis?

19 An autosomal genetic disorder (caused by a mutation on pair #7) that causes a protein malformation. This results in thick mucus in the lining of the lungs and intestines and frequent (and resistant) bacterial infections.

20 What is the term for a picture of the chromosomes in a cell? What are some disorders that this picture can help to identify?

21 A Karyotype. Down syndrome (trisomy 21)…shown here  Kleinfelter’s Syndrome: XXY Turner’s Syndrome: one X only.

22 What is the difference between incomplete dominance and co- dominance?

23 Incomplete Dominance: R=Red flowers, W=white flowers RW=pink flowers rather than red. Co-dominance: R=Red flowers, W=white flowers RW=flowers with patches of red and patches of white.

24 What is the difference between inbreeding and hybridization? These are examples of_____.

25 These are two examples of SELECTIVE BREEDING? Inbreeding: crossing two individuals with identical or similar alleles to produce specific traits. This can increase the chance of inheriting genetic disorders Hybridization: crossing two individuals with different traits, so offspring might get the best traits of both. Used in agriculture.

26 What is cloning?

27 A procedure that produces an organism that is genetically identical to the parent.

28 Can environment affect phenotype? Explain.

29 YES! You may be genetically predisposed to be 6’4” tall, but without the proper nutrition…ain’t gonna happen!

30 What genetic disorder (caused by a mutation) is characterized by abnormally formed hemoglobin ?

31 Sickle-Cell Anemia!

32 What are homologous chromosomes?

33 A pair of chromosomes that carry identical sets of genes.

34 The genetic code or GENOME is the order of the nucleotides along the entire DNA molecule of a particular organism. What do this sequence determine?

35 It determines how the amino acids are assembled to form… PROTEINS!

36 What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype?

37 Phenotype = the physical (sometimes) visible traits of an organism (example: blue eyes, type AB blood). Genotype = the genetic make-up of an organism…its chromosomes (example: Bb, BB, bb).

38 Explain the relationship among DNA, chromatin, chromosomes, genes, alleles, and traits.

39 DNA is the molecule that codes for heredity. Normally it is in the form of chromatin, but during cell division it forms structures called chromosomes. A gene is a specific part of a chromosome that is responsible for a certain trait. Alleles are the variations or “flavors” of a gene.

40 If a heterozygous parent is crossed with another heterozygous parent, what is the probability that the offspring will be homozygous recessive?

41 1:4 or 25%

42 What is does purebred or true breeding mean?

43 A Homozygous genotype (either dominant or recessive)

44 What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?

45 It’s what we’ve been studying…Traits are carried by Genes which are passed from parents to offspring on chromosomes.

46 What is a pedigree? What do the various shapes and shading on a pedigree represent?

47 A pedigree is a chart that shows how traits are passed from one generation to another. Open Circle = Normal Female Half-shaded Circle=Carrier Female Shaded Circle=Affected Female Open Square = Normal Male Half-shaded Square =Carrier Male Shaded Square =Affected Male

48 If you have the A and B alleles for blood type, what type blood do you have?

49 AB

50 What is the significance of the 23 rd pair of chromosomes in humans?

51 This is the pair that determines the sex of the person XY=Male XX=Female

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