Background knowledge Four steps one has to go through in looking for a job: a. Look for a post in newspapers, on TV, etc. b. Write a formal application to the target company and follow up with a call b. Write a formal application to the target company and follow up with a call c. Get an answer from the company d. Be interviewed by the company
Four types of the text Description( 描述 ) is painting a picture in words of a person, place, object, or scene. Narration ( 记叙 )writing includes stories, real or imaginary, biographies, histories, new items, and narrative poems. Exposition( 说明 ) is perhaps the type of writing that is more frequently used by a student, a scientist, or a professional, exposition means expounding or explaining. Argumentation( 议论 ) essay tries to make the reader agree with its point of view and support it, to persuade him to change his mind or behavior, and to approve a policy or a course of action that it proposes.
Types of the text Narration is the form of discourse generally used in novels, short stories and plays. Narrative writing tells a story, either briefly or at some length. In a narrative piece of writing, the sequential occurrence of events is vital. My first job is a short narrative passage.
Writing style and structure of the text My First Job is a piece of Narration. Told in the first person, the text gives a vivid and detailed account of the author’s applying for a job before going to college. Six elements of a Narration Time On a hot June morning Place At a school in a suburb of London Figures “I” and the headmaster
events Cause ---- Part1 - Line (1-5) Process-----Part 2 Line (6-38) Climax&End—Part 3 Line (39-40) The story can be divided into three parts: a. The first part (Line1-5) is about the reason for applying for a job. b. The second part (Line6-38) is about the whole process of the interview. c. The third part (Line39-40) is the ending of the story.
Questions 1.What job was advertised in the local newspaper? 2.Why did “I” want to find a job? 3.Did “I” feel nervous when “I” got there? Why or why not?
Detailed Study of the Story While I was waiting to enter university. I saw in a local newspaper a teaching post advertised at a school in a suburb of London about ten miles from where I lived. Attention: in this sentence, the object of the predict “ saw” ---a teaching post is not in the normal order. I saw a teaching post at a school in a suburb of London about ten miles from where I lived advertised in a local newspaper. Note: As the direct object “a teaching post” has a lengthy modifier, it needs to be postponed in order that the whole sentence has “end weight”.
sentence=old information +new information Old information=given information/known information New information Information focus =end focus Mr. Smith is a friend of my father’s. Old information=Mr. Smith New information=is a friend of my father’s He gave me a book/ he gave a book to me.
BBBBeing very short of money and wanting to do something useful, I applied, fearing as I did so, that without a degree and with no experience of teaching my chances of landing the job were slim. bbbbe short of: have not enough, be in want of, be in lack of IIIIt was obvious that this young man was rather short of teaching experience. ffffearing as I did so: fearing as I applied. sssslim: small, slight; slender HHHHis chances of success were very slim. ----She raised her two daughters with her slim income. ----The doctor will go on operating even though there is only a slim hope of success. ----The fashion model had a very slim figure. ----He will have to slim if he wants to wear the sweater.
The main sentence is “I applied.” “Being very short of money and wanting to do something useful”, present participle, used adverbially denoting reasons; “fearing as I did so, that without a degree and with no experience in teaching my chances of getting the job were slim”, present participle, used as the adverbial of “applied”, denoting accompanying circumstances. Besides, “that...” is the object clause of “fearing”, “as I did so” is an adverbial clause of time. Not having enough money and wanting to do something useful, I applied for the job, fearing as I applied, that I did not have a degree or any teaching experience, I would just have the slightest chance of getting the job.
However, three days later a letter arrived, summoning me to Croydon for an interview. Three days later I received a letter, asking me to go to Croydon to have an interview. 我得鼓足勇气去见老板. I had to summon up all my nerve to face my boss.
It proved an awkward journey: a train to Croydon station; a ten—minute bus ride and then a walk of at least a quarter of a mile. It proved an awkward journey: It turned out to be an awkward journey. Prove: turn out to -Tom proved (to be) very brave in battle. -His experiences on the farm prove to be a turning point in his writing career
a ten-minute bus ride: (it took) ten minutes to get there by bus Ten—minute is a compound adjective of time formed by combing a cardinal number with a noun in the singular number which are joined by a hyphen. a fifteen-minute talk -a two-week conference -a one-month training course
AAAAs a result I arrived on a hot June morning too depressed to feel nervous. aaaas a result: therefore AAAAs a result he had been given an excellent job. 结结结结果他得到了一份相当好的工作. 由由由由于下雪他迟到了. HHHHe was late as a result of snow. ddddepress: make sad; press, push or pull down; make lower
The school was a dreary, gabled Victorian house of red brick and with big staring sash— windows. A victorian house is a house typical of the time Queen Victoria(1819—1901)reigned over Britain. From the sentence we may visualize a house with triangular upper parts of the wall at the end of a ridged roof and with large windows of two frames which open by sliding one frame up or down behind or in front of the other.
Staring sash windows, here it used the figure of speech—metaphor. The windows were so large that they look like people’s wide open eyes. Here this figure of speech shows the school gives the author an uncomfortable impression. Metaphor It is like a simile, also makes a comparison between two unlike elements, but unlike a simile, this comparison is implied rather than stated. For example, the world is a stage. Simile ： ( 明喻） It is a figure of speech which makes a comparison between two unlike elements having at least one quality or characteristic ( 特性 )in common. To make the comparison, words like as, as...as, as if and like are used to transfer the quality we associate with one to the other. For example, As cold waters to a thirsty soul, so is good news from a far country.
TTTThe front garden was a gravel square; four evergreen shrubs stood at each corner, where they struggled to survive the dust and fumes from a busy main road. GGGGravel: pebbles or small pieces of rock larger than grains of sand SSSSurvive: remain alive after TTTThe crops survived the drought. SSSSurvive somebody by : the man survived his sister by three years. 他他他他比他姐姐多活了三年.
ppppersonification: a figure that endows objects, animals, ideas, or abstractions with human form, character, or sensibility. MMMMy heart was singing. 我的心在歌唱。 TTTThis time fate was smiling to him. 这一次命运朝他 微笑了。 TTTThe flowers nodded to her while she passed. 当她 经过的时候花儿向她点头致意。 TTTThe wind whistled through the trees. 风穿过树丛， 树叶哗哗作响。
IIIIt was clearly the headmaster himself that opened the door. NNNNote: Here it is an emphatic sentence. It is/was... that/who can be used to emphasize the subject, object, object complement or the adverbial of a sentence. I I I It was on Monday night that all this happened．所 有这一切发生在周一晚上。 It's me that he blamed．他怪的是我。
He was short and rotund. He has a sandy— colored moustache, a freckled forehead and hardly any hair. He was wearing a tweed suit– one felt somehow he had always worn it—and across his ample stomach was looped a silver watch– chain. Description of a person: Forehead: a person’s forehead can be large, high, low, board, narrow, domed or retreating.
Moustache: a man may grow a moustache, which can be close—cropped, drooping or pointed. Eyes: a person may have bloodshot eyes, close-set eyes, or sunken eyes. Height: a person may be tall, short, or of medium height. He pounded his fat baby hands on the high chair tray. His eye were crinkled in laughter and his mouth was bared in a toothless grin, as he wriggled and giggled with merriment. ( 他胖乎乎的小手用力打着高脚椅, 身体扭动着, 高兴的咯咯大 笑, 笑的眼睛都眯了起来, 咧开的嘴露出光亮亮的牙床.)
TTTTranslation: 面面面面若芙蓉： hhhher face looked like a water—lily 面面面面如桃花： hhhher face was like a peach blossom 一一一一个是水中月，一个是镜中花． OOOOne is the moon reflected in the water, the other but a flower in the mirror. 倾倾倾倾国倾城的貌 AAAAnd yours is the beauty which caused cities and kingdom to fall HHHHer beauty even puts the flower to shame.
HHHHe looked at me with an air of surprised disapproval.: He looked at me in disapproval that was mixed with surprise. 1111.air: appearance, manner or personal bearing HHHHe has an air of importance. 他他他他摆出一副煞有其事的样子． 这这这这所房子给人感觉很舒适． TTTThe house has an air of comfort. AAAAn air of disdain (轻蔑的神情） an air of mystery (神秘的 气氛） 2222. disapproval: unfavorable opinion or feeling ----The proposal met disapproval from all sides. ----He shook his head in disapproval.
ttttransferred epithet: a figure of speech where an epithet (an adjective or descriptive phrase) is transferred from the noun it should rightly modify to another to which it does not really apply or belong (转类)通常把修饰甲类名词的形容词转而修 饰乙类名词 ----He crashed down on a protesting chair. ----Above us hung a sullen sky. ----I spoke to them in hesitant French. ----We passed many an anxious hour in the darkness.
HHHHe looked at me with an air of surprised disapproval, as a colonel might look at a private whose bootlaces were undone. SSSSimile(明喻) aaaa figure of speech which makes a comparison between two different things by using 'like', 'as... as' or 'as if’'. For example:
Her eyes are like two stars. AAAA comparison is made between 'eyes' and ‘stars’ by using 'like'... wwwwhen she is young again, a charming maiden, fresh as a rose,... AAAA comparison is made between 'grandmother's youth' and ‘rose’ by using 'as‘ 我我我我如浮云独自漫游． IIII wondered lonely as a cloud MMMMy heart is like a singing bird.
“Ah yes,” he grunted. “you’d better come inside.” the narrow sunless hall smelled unpleasantly of stale cabbage; 1.smell of: give out the smell or scent of -this dish smells of garlic. 你呼吸中带有白兰地的味道． 你呼吸中带有白兰地的味道． Your breath smells of Brandy. 2. stale: not fresh; -stale bread/beer/vegetable/food -Running water never gets stale. 流水不腐. -stale news/jokes/statement/gossip
TTTThe cream—printed walls had gone a dingy margarine color, except where they were scarred with ink marks; it was all silent. CCCCream—a pale yellow color DDDDingy: dirty—looking; not fresh or cheerful MMMMargarine color—the color of the butter BBBButter and bread BBBBe scarred with -- AAAA face scarred with smallpox 一一一一张布满天花天下疤痕的脸． 因因因因战争满目苍夷的城镇 wwwwar—scarred town.
HHHHis study, judging by the crumbs on the carpet, was also his dining-room. JJJJudge: estimate, form an opinion about ----Don't judge persons by appearances. ----I cannot judge whether he is right or wrong. NNNNote: The phrase “judging by or from” is often used as an independent element in a sentence. ----Judging from his accent, he must be from the North. ----Judging by what she is wearing, she may be a fashion model.
On the mantelpiece there was a salt cellar and pepper—pot. “ you’d better sit down,” he said, and proceeded to ask me a number of questions: what subjects had I taken in my General School Certificate; how old was I ; what games did I play; Proceed to :go ahead, continue to do Let’s proceed to the next item on the agenda. May we proceed, then, to the election of a committee? 那么我们可以继续进行委员会的选举了么？
tttthen fixing me suddenly with his bloodshot eyes, he asked whether I thought games were a vital part of a boy's education. WWWWhy do you think the headmaster had “ bloodshot eye.”? PPPPerhaps he liked to have a drop too much. １１１１．fixing my eyes with his bloodshot eyes: suddenly staring at me with eyes that were red from sleeplessness or heavy drinking ２２２２．vital: of the greatest importance; full of life or energy TTTThe relationship between teacher and student is of vital importance. 速速速速度对于我们成功至关重要． SSSSpeed is vital to the success of our plan.
IIII mumbled something about not attaching too much importance to them. １１１１． “not attaching too much importance to them” is the object of “about”. ２２２２． attach importance to: consider important; treat as important ----We should attach primary importance to the development of economy. ----The local government of the town attached much importance to the quality of primary school education.
He grunted. I had said the wrong thing. The headmaster and I obviously has singularly little in common. Singularly—this is a formal word meaning “very, to a remarkable degree.” Have in common: share together or equally -Tom and I had background in common. -While they are twins, they have few interests in common The headmaster and I obviously had very little in common.
TTTThe school, he said, consisted of one class of twenty-four boys, ranging in age from seven to thirteen.: The school described in the story is what people call a one-room school house – a school with one teacher who must instruct all of the students. Today one-room school houses might still be found in small villages; but they are by no means common. １１１１． consist of: be made up of ----This apartment consists of three bedrooms, a living room, a bathroom and a kitchen. ----The medical team consists of three doctors and seven nurses. CCCConsist in TTTThe beauty of this place consists in the style of its ancient buildings. ２２２２． range from... to...: vary between two limits of... and... TTTThe Himalayas(喜马拉雅山脉） range from west to east. ----In our class, the students‘ ages range from 10 to 20.
IIII should have to teach all subjects except art, which he taught himself. Football and cricket were played in the Park, a mile away on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. CCCCricket—an outdoor game played by two teams of eleven men each in which a ball, bats(球棒) and wickets(三柱门) are used. It is popular mainly in England.
TTTThe teaching set-up appalled me, i should have to split the class up into three groups and teach them in turn at three different levels AAAAppall – shock deeply; fill with fear TTTThe teaching arrangement made me full of fear/surprised and frightened. SSSSplit into –divide into iiiin turn: one after another
IIII was dismayed at the thought of teaching algebra and geometry.: As soon as I thought of teaching algebra and geometry, I was discouraged. 1111. dismay: make discouraged or afraid 2222.at the thought of: when I think of NNNNote: at + the + n. + of ----at the sight of; at the sound of 11118.incompetent: completely unskillful (capable /able ) HHHHe was incompetent at his job. ----The dentist was horribly incompetent. He pulled out my good tooth instead of the bad one.
WWWWorse perhaps was the idea of Saturday afternoon cricket. TTTThis sentence is written in an inverted order for stylistic effects. The more complex part of the sentence is placed at the final position so that the whole sentence has “end weight”. The normal order would be “The idea of Saturday afternoon cricket was perhaps worse...”
IIIIt was not so much having to tramp a mile along the dusty streets of Croydon, followed by a crocodile of small boys that I minded, but the fact that most of my friends would be enjoying leisure at that time. WWWWe tramped through the wood 我我我我们吃力地走过了树林。 HHHHe tramped on the flowers. 他他他他踩着花了。 MMMMost of my friends would be enjoying leisure at that time: Most of my friends would be free on Saturday afternoon, doing whatever they liked. LLLLeisure: free time, time which one can spend as one likes; the state of being free ----Call me when you are at (your) leisure. ----It was only in his later life that Samuel Johnson was able to live a life of leisure on a stable income.
IIII said diffidently, “what would my salary be?” “Twelve pounds a week plus lunch.” Before I could protest he got to his feet. “now,” he said, “ you’d better meet my wife. she’s the one who really run this school. 1111.Before I could protest, he got to his feet. ----Before I understood the first problem, the teacher proceeded to the next problem. 2222. get to one's feet: stand up RRRRun: manage, operate, take charge of, be in charge of
TTTThis was the last straw.: This was really the worst coming to the worst and too much to put up with. WWWWhat is meant by “ this was the last straw”? ““““The last straw” means an addition to a difficult job or situation that makes it unbearable. This idiom is based on the saying “It is the last straw that breaks the camel's back.” TTTThe hotel was expensive, the food poor, and bad weather was the last straw.
TTTThe prospect of working under a woman constituted the ultimate indignity. 1111. prospect: sth. expected or considered probable; possibility ----The prospect of living alone in a foreign country for a whole year depressed her. ----The committee rejected the investment proposal because it did not see any prospect of success. 2222. constitute: form; make up ----Twelve months constitute a year. TTTThis move constitutes an act of aggression. 这这这这一举动构成了侵略行为。. AAAA committee was constituted to investigate into that affair. 建建建建立了一个委员会以调查那件事。
3333. ultimate: greatest; utmost; last or final AAAAfter many defeats, the war ended for us in ultimate victory. 经经经经过多次失败,战争以我们的最终胜利而结束。 HHHHard work is the ultimate source of success. 努努努努力工作是成功之本。 ----Conceit constitutes his ultimate destruction. TTTThe fact that I would have to work under a woman in future make me feel totally humiliated.
Conclusion: 1. school being a long way from his home 2.inconvenient transportation—an awkward journey. 3. hot weather 4. poor surroundings (outside the school building—busy main road, dusty and full of fumes) 5. inside the school building –dirty and untidy Unfavorable impression of the headmaster—his untidy study and suit, his strange, distasteful appearance.
6. terrible teaching set—up a class of 24 boys from 7 to 13, 3 different levels, compelled to teach 2 subjects the writer was not good at; required to take the pupils to the park a mile away to play cricket on Saturday afternoon. 7. Meager salary –12 pounds a week plus lunch 8. working under a woman
Homework: Write a short essay to describe a person Pick out the key words of the text Summarize what we have learnt today. over