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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Entrepreneurship theory | process | practice Donald F. Kuratko Richard M. Hodgetts Seventh edition Part 1 Entrepreneurship in the New Millennium © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 2 The Evolution of Entrepreneurship
Chapter Objectives 1. 1.To examine the historical development of entrepreneurship 2. 2.To explore and debunk the myths of entrepreneurship 3. 3.To define and explore the major schools of entrepreneurial thought 4. 4.To explain the process approaches to the study of entrepreneurship 5. 5.To set forth a comprehensive definition of entrepreneurship Studying this chapter should provide you with the entrepreneurial knowledge needed: © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–2
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–3 The Evolution of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneur is derived from the French entreprendre, meaning “to undertake.” The entrepreneur is one who undertakes to organize, manage, and assume the risks of a business. Although no single definition of entrepreneur exists and no one profile can represent today’s entrepreneur, research is providing an increasingly sharper focus on the subject.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–4 A Summary Description of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship (Robert C. Ronstadt) The dynamic process of creating incremental wealth. This wealth is created by individuals who assume major risks in terms of equity, time, and/or career commitment of providing value for a product or service. The product or service itself may or may not be new or unique but the entrepreneur must somehow infuse value by securing and allocating the necessary skills and resources.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–5 An Integrated Definition Entrepreneurship A dynamic process of vision, change, and creation. Requires an application of energy and passion towards the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions.Requires an application of energy and passion towards the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions. Essential ingredients include: The willingness to take calculated risks—in terms of time, equity, or career.The willingness to take calculated risks—in terms of time, equity, or career. The ability to formulate an effective venture team; the creative skill to marshal needed resources.The ability to formulate an effective venture team; the creative skill to marshal needed resources. The fundamental skills of building a solid business plan.The fundamental skills of building a solid business plan. The vision to recognize opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction, and confusion.The vision to recognize opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction, and confusion.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–6 The Myths of Entrepreneurship Myth 1:Entrepreneurs Are Doers, Not Thinkers Myth 2:Entrepreneurs Are Born, Not Made Myth 3:Entrepreneurs Are Always Inventors Myth 4:Entrepreneurs Are Academic and Social Misfits Myth 5:Entrepreneurs Must Fit the “Profile” Myth 6:All Entrepreneurs Need Is Money Myth 7:All Entrepreneurs Need Is Luck Myth 8:Ignorance Is Bliss For Entrepreneurs Myth 9:Entrepreneurs Seek Success But Experience High Failure Rates Myth 10:Entrepreneurs Are Extreme Risk Takers (Gamblers)
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–7 Figure 2.1Entrepreneurial Schools-of-Thought Approach
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–8 Macro View: External Locus of Control The Environmental School of Thought Considers the external factors that affect a potential entrepreneur’s lifestyle. The Financial/Capital School of Thought Based on the capital-seeking process—the search for seed and growth capital. The Displacement School of Thought Alienation drives entrepreneurial pursuits Political displacement (laws, policies, and regulations)Political displacement (laws, policies, and regulations) Cultural displacement (preclusion of social groups)Cultural displacement (preclusion of social groups) Economic displacement (economic variations)Economic displacement (economic variations)
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–9 Table 2.1Financial Analysis Emphasis
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–10 Micro View: Internal Locus of Control The Entrepreneurial Trait School of Thought Focuses on identifying traits common to successful entrepreneurs. Achievement, creativity, determination, and technical knowledgeAchievement, creativity, determination, and technical knowledge The Venture Opportunity School of Thought Focuses on the opportunity aspect of venture development—the search for idea sources, the development of concepts, and the implementation of venture opportunities. Corridor principle: New pathways or opportunities will arise that lead entrepreneurs in different directions.Corridor principle: New pathways or opportunities will arise that lead entrepreneurs in different directions.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–11 Table 2.2Definitions And Criteria Of One Approach To The Micro View Source: Adapted from J. Barton Cunningham and Joe Lischeron, “Defining Entrepreneurship,” Journal of Small Business Management (January 1991): 56.59(1) (winter 1994): Reprinted with permission.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–12 Table 2.2Definitions And Criteria Of One Approach To The Micro View (cont’d) Source: Adapted from J. Barton Cunningham and Joe Lischeron, “Defining Entrepreneurship,” Journal of Small Business Management (January 1991): 56.59(1) (winter 1994): Reprinted with permission.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–13 Table 2.2Definitions And Criteria Of One Approach To The Micro View (cont’d) Source: Adapted from J. Barton Cunningham and Joe Lischeron, “Defining Entrepreneurship,” Journal of Small Business Management (January 1991): 56.59(1) (winter 1994): Reprinted with permission.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–14 Micro View… (cont’d) The Strategic Formulation School of Thought Emphasizes the planning process in successful venture development. Ronstadt’s View Strategic formulation is a leveraging of unique elements: Unique Markets: mountain gap strategiesUnique Markets: mountain gap strategies Unique People: great chef strategiesUnique People: great chef strategies Unique Products: better widget strategiesUnique Products: better widget strategies Unique Resources: water well strategiesUnique Resources: water well strategies
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–15 Process Approaches to Entrepreneurship Integrative Approach Built around the concepts of input to the entrepreneurial process and outcomes from the entrepreneurial process. Focuses on the entrepreneurial process itself and identifies five key elements that contribute to the process. Provides a comprehensive picture regarding the nature of entrepreneurship that can be applied at different levels.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–16 Figure 2.2An Integrative Model of Entrepreneurial Inputs and Outcomes Source: Michael H. Morris, P. Lewis, and Donald L. Sexton, “Reconceptualizing Entrepreneurship: An Input-Output Perspective,” SAM Advanced Management Journal 59(1) (winter 1994): 21–31.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–17 Process Approaches… (cont’d) Entrepreneurial Assessment Approach Stresses making assessments qualitatively, quantitatively, strategically, and ethically in regard to the entrepreneur, the venture, and the environment Multidimensional Approach Views entrepreneurship as a complex, multidimensional framework that emphasizes the individual, the environment, the organization, and the venture process.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–18 Figure 2.3Entrepreneurial Assessment Approach Source: Robert C. Ronstadt, Entrepreneurship (Dover, MA: Lord Publishing Co., 1984), 39.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–19 Figure 2.4 Variables in New-Venture Creation Source: William B. Gartner, “A Conceptual Framework for Describing the Phenomenon of New Venture Creation,” Academy of Management Review (October 1985): 702. Reprinted with permission.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–20 Intrapreneurship (Corporate Entrepreneurship) Intrapreneurship Intrapreneurship Entrepreneurship that takes place within an organization Intrapreneuring (corporate entrepreneurship) To create or develop the entrepreneurial spirit within corporate boundaries, thereby allowing an atmosphere of innovation to prosper.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–21 Key Concepts Entrepreneurship A process of innovation and new-venture creation through four major dimensions—individual, organizational, environmental, process—that is aided by collaborative networks in government, education, and institutions. Entrepreneur A catalyst for economic change who uses purposeful searching, careful planning, and sound judgment when carrying out the entrepreneurial process.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–22 Key Concepts Entrepreneurial Management The discipline of entrepreneurial management: Entrepreneurship is based upon the same principles.Entrepreneurship is based upon the same principles. It matters not who or what that the entrepreneur is—an existing large institution or an individual, for-profit business or a public-service organization, a governmental or non- governmental institution.It matters not who or what that the entrepreneur is—an existing large institution or an individual, for-profit business or a public-service organization, a governmental or non- governmental institution. The rules are much the same: things that work and those that don’t are much the same, and so are innovations and where to look for them.The rules are much the same: things that work and those that don’t are much the same, and so are innovations and where to look for them.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.2–23 Key Terms and Concepts better widget strategies corridor principle displacement school of thought entrepreneur entrepreneurial assessment approach entrepreneurial management entrepreneurial trait school of thought entrepreneurship environmental school of thought external locus of control financial/capital school of thought great chef strategies internal locus of control intrapreneurship macro view of entrepreneurship micro view of entrepreneurship mountain gap strategies multidimensional approach strategic formulation school of thought venture opportunity school of thought water well strategies
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