Presentation on theme: "Bahasa Inggris untuk Profesi Informasi"— Presentation transcript:
1 Bahasa Inggris untuk Profesi Informasi ParaphrasingOlehTAMARA ADRIANI SUSTEYO-SALIMBerdasarkan buku ACADEMIC WRITING, Ilona LekiDEPARTEMEN ILMU PERPUSTAKAAN DAN INFORMASIFAKULTAS ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUDAYAUNIVERSITAS INDONESIADepok, 2007
2 ParaphraseRewording or expressing the meaning of a piece of writing, statement etc. in different words, especially in order to make it easier to understand
3 Purpose of ParaphraseTo report someone else's material or ideas in your own words.To support a point you are making in your own work without using the other writer’s exact wording.To change the style or the language used in the original, either to make it easier to understand or to make it fit better into your own piece of writing.
4 Length of Paraphrase Usually about the same length as the original. The words and the sentence structure of the original must be changed in a paraphrase.
5 Part of a written paper in progress on: The problems of getting rid of toxic waste. “. . . While it is obvious that poisonous materials which may be the by-products of manufacturing must be destroyed somehow, we must be very careful of how we destroy them. Otherwise, we might produce disastrous effects on the environment. We cannot simply burn waste and let the smoke pollute the air”.The writer is trying to show that burning waste has negative effects on the environment.The writer needs specific facts to support her claims
6 Information to be taken from an article entitled "Storing up Trouble: Hazardous, Waste" in National Geographic in March 1985.The article includes a report on the efforts of a woman named Verna Courtemanche to close down a hazardous waste incinerator near her town. The plant, which was operated by a man named Charles Berlin, was badly polluting the atmosphere.
7 The section to be written in the paper "In 1972, Berlin and a partner opened a hazardous waste incinerator. Often it was overloaded, smothering the countryside in acrid smoke so dark and dense that firemen on the horizon would take it for blazing houses and race over."
8 In order to incorporate the information from the article in the paper, the writer first has to change what has been written so that the new information will fit smoothly.. . . While it is obvious that poisonous materials which may be the by-products of manufacturing must be destroyed somehow, we must be very careful of how we destroy them. Otherwise, we may find ourselves in a situation like that of a small town in New England in 1972, when a plant, owned and operated by Charles Berlin and another man, was built to burn hazardous waste.Note: hazardous waste does not have to be changed because this is a technical expression.
9 Methods of Paraphrasing Read the sentence several times carefully to make sure you understand the meaning. Cover up the sentence and write down the substance of the sentence from memory in your own words. Check the original. Make sureyou did not leave anything important out,and that you did not use exactly the same words as the original
10 a. Begin the sentence differently and change all the nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs as you complete the sentence.b. Break one long sentence into shorterones or combine ideas in shortsentences into one longer one.
11 Complete the following sentence beginnings by paraphrasing the original in four different ways. 1. Sometimes firemen __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Because Berlin put too much waste in his incinerator, _____________________3. The incinerator often__________________________________________________4. The country surrounding the factory ______________________________________
12 Exercise Paraphrase the following six sentences so that they form a paragraph or two.Begin the paragraph with thissentence:Living in the vicinity of Berlin's dump sitesoon became intolerable.
13 Alter the words and sentence structures of the original to form a coherent paragraph The corrosive fumes turned convertible car tops into rags, reddened children's faces with rash, and swelled their eyes shut.Citizens living near the incinerator and its foul lagoons saw the value of their homes crash and believe that their health is threatened.Verna Courtemanche led a decade-long fight to get federal and state government to intervene and begin a cleanup.Verna and friends harried state officials by phone, rally, and letter for four years before Berlin's noxious dump site was permanently closed.The owner of the facility, when faced with legal action, abandoned the site and declared bankruptcy.Illegally buried containers unearthed by cleanup crews near the incinerator held a witches' brew of cyanide, pesticides, acids, and PCBs.