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1 Introduction to Quantum Information Processing CS 467 / CS 667 Phys 467 / Phys 767 C&O 481 / C&O 681 Richard Cleve DC 3524 cleve@cs.uwaterloo.ca Course web site at: http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/~cleve/courses/cs467 Lecture 22 (2005)

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2 Contents Recap: BB84 key exchange protocol The Lo-Chau key exchange protocol: easier to analyze, though harder to implement

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3 Recap: BB84 key exchange protocol The Lo-Chau key exchange protocol: easier to analyze, though harder to implement

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4 Recap of BB84 Alice sends a string of these “BB84” states to Bob Note: Eve may see these qubits (and tamper with them) After receiving each qubit, Bob randomly chooses a basis and measures in it Then Alice and Bob communicate on the non-private (but authenticated) classical channel to distill a good private key Known to be doable if “error rate” is less that 11%, and the system can abort otherwise 11 11 0 + 1 0 − 1

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5 Recap: BB84 key exchange protocol The Lo-Chau key exchange protocol: easier to analyze, though harder to implement

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6 Sufficiency of Bell states If Alice and Bob can somehow generate a series of Bell states between them, such as + + ... + , then it suffices for them to measure these states to obtain a secret key Intuitively, this is because there is nothing that Eve can “know” about + = ( 1 / 2 )( 00 + 11 ) that will permit her to predict a future measurement that she has no access to Eve ? This works using other Bell states, such as – = 01 – 10

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7 Key distribution protocol based on – Preliminary idea: Alice creates several – states and sends the second qubit of each one to Bob If they knew that that they possessed state – – ... – then they could simply measure each qubit pair (say, in the computational basis) to obtain a shared private key We might as well assume that Eve is supplying the qubits to Alice and Bob, who somehow test whether they’re – Since Eve can access the qubit channel, she can measure, or otherwise disturb the state in transit (e.g., replace by 01 ) Question: how can Alice and Bob test the validity of their states?

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8 Testing 01 – 10 states (I) Alice and Bob can pick a random subset of their – states (say half of them) to test, and then forfeit those –––––––––––––––– Test and discard these pairs –––––––– How do Alice and Bob “test” the pairs in this subset? Note: because of Eve, they can’t really use the quantum channel to actually measure them in the Bell basis...

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9 Testing 01 – 10 states (II) The Bell state – = 01 – 10 has the following properties: Therefore, (c) if both qubits are measured in the Hadamard basis the resulting bits will still be different (a) if both qubits are measured in the computational basis the resulting bits will be different (i.e., 01 or 10) (b) it does not change if H H is applied to it Moreover, – is the only two-qubit state that satisfies properties (a) and (c) Question: Why?

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10 Testing 01 – 10 states (III) For example, if Eve slips in a state 01 then Alice and Bob measuring this pair in the Hadamard basis results in the same bit with probability ½ Problem: they can only measure in one of these two bases Solution: they pick the basis randomly among the two types (Alice decides by fliping a coin and announcing the result to Bob on the read-only classical channel) Question: if there are n purported – states and Alice and Bob test m of them, what is the probability of Eve being caught if she slips in just one 01 state (say)? Answer: m/ 2 n Note: even if m = n –1, Eve succeeds with probability 1 / 2 n

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11 Better testing (I) Think of a related (simpler) classical problem: detect if a binary array contains at least one 0 11110111 If one is confined to examining individual entries, this is difficult to do with very high probability making few tests If one can test parties of subsets of qubits then the following procedure exposes a 0 with probability ½: pick a random r {0,1} n and test if r x = r 11...1 If x 11...1 then this test detects this with probability ½ Testing k such parities detects with probability 1 – (½) k

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12 Better testing (II) The previous idea can be translated into the context of testing whether pairs Bell states are all – or not –––––––––––––––– 1.Alice picks a random r {0,1} n and sends it to Bob 2.Alice and Bob perform various bilateral CNOT operations on their qubits For r = 1011 “parity” of positions 1, 3, 4

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13 Better testing (III) Call: + = õõ + = õ ĩ – = ĩ õ – = ĩ ĩ Then bilateral CNOT gates cause ã 1,ẽ 1 ã 2,ẽ 2 to become ã 1 ã 2,ẽ 1 ã 1,ẽ 1 ẽ 2 If the states are not all – = ĩ ĩ then there is either: a õ in the second slot or a õ in the first slot A measurement of bit parities will detect the former, and this measurement in the Hadamard basis will detect the latter—in either case a series of bilateral CNOTs will cause this parity information to appear in a single pair of qubits that can be measured

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14 Example: detecting a 01 state This corresponds to a state of the form: ( 1 / 2 ) – – – ... – + ( 1 / 2 ) – + – ... – accepted with probability ½ rejected with probability (½)(½)(½) Hadamard measurement selected parity error is detected

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15 Net result By sacrificing say half the qubit pairs, Alice and Bob can establish with probability exponentially close to 1 that all remaining qubit pairs are in state – from which a secret key can be directly obtained Note 2: the Shor-Preskill security proof for BB84 builds on some of the ideas behind the Lo-Chau protocol Note 1: unlike BB84, this protocol requires Alice and Bob to have quantum computers—to perform nontrivial operations on several qubits

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Lo-Chau Quantum Key Distribution 1.Alice creates 2n EPR pairs in state each in state | 00 >, and picks a random 2n bitstring b, 2.Alice randomly selects.

Lo-Chau Quantum Key Distribution 1.Alice creates 2n EPR pairs in state each in state | 00 >, and picks a random 2n bitstring b, 2.Alice randomly selects.

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