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Novelty II – Old an New Patent Law Prof Merges 9.22.2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Novelty II – Old an New Patent Law Prof Merges 9.22.2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Novelty II – Old an New Patent Law Prof Merges

2 Agenda In re Klopfenstein: summary Section 102(e) – New “section 102(e) = Section 102(f): derivation

3 In each case... The reference is at least theoretically available What about a case where a reference is not even theoretically available? – Welcome to § 102(e) !!

4 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr

5 You think I look baggy? Wait til you’re old!

6 “Get down, you damn fool, before you get shot!!”

7

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9 2 Patents in Alexander Milburn Whitford Filed Issued: Clifford Filed: Issued:

10 Specification, Pat. ‘001 Rotating handle at end of bar Cutting element attached to bar Base, with passageway U-shaped bar Claim Elements 102(e): Compare DISCLOSURE in spec of Patent A vs. CLAIM in Spec of Patent B Claims, Pat. ‘002

11 Why would anyone disclose but not claim an invention?

12 Related field Interested only in one application Oversight

13 Disclosed: Broad disclosure Claimed: narrower embodiments First application: ‘001 Patent X

14 002 Patent, Second application X CLAIMS what was disclosed, but NOT claimed, in earlier application

15 Whitford: Claimed Filed Issued: Clifford: Disclosed but not claimed Filed: Issued:

16 “ The delays of the patent office ought not to cut down the effect of what has been done.” – p. 423

17 Holmes’ reasoning Note emphasis on who was “prior inventor” Is there a sense that allowing the claims to Clifford would somehow deprive Whitford of credit? Or somehow harm the public?

18 Holmes’ reasoning Emphasis on who was “prior inventor” Two separate issues – Is Whitford’s patent anticipated by Clifford reference? – VS. Who has “priority” – ONLY RELEVANT IF WHITFORD AND CLIFFORD BOTH CLAIM THE SAME INVENTION

19 What if they HAD claimed the same invention?

20 This would be a priority case... If Whitford and Clifford had CLAIMED the same subject matter Covered under § 102(g) INTERFERENCE

21 Alexander Milburn Codified in §102(e): No patent if – (e) Invention was DESCRIBED [but NOT claimed] in... (2) a patent granted on an application for patent by another filed in the US before the [date of] invention

22 “Clifford had done all he could do to make” description public “Mailbox rule” for disclosure purposes? – as with Acceptances in Contract law?

23 Codified in Section 102(e): No patent if – (e) Invention was DESCRIBED [but NOT claimed] in... (2) a patent granted on an application for patent by another filed in the US before the [date of] invention

24 102(e) Issues Patent must be granted; then application is prior art as of FILING DATE: Nunc pro tunc – Provisional rejections Application must be “by another” – technical definition, inventive entities Amendments: “filed in the US” -- international priority filings; published US applications; provisional applications

25 MPEP (k) Provisional Rejection … Under 35 U.S.C. 102(e) … Where two applications of different inventive entities are copending, not published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b), and the filing dates differ, a provisional rejection under 35 U.S.C. 102(e) … should be made in the later filed application...

26 Why “provisional”? §102(e): No patent if – (e) Invention was described in... (2) a patent granted on an application for patent by another filed in the US before the [date of] invention...

27 “Nunc pro tunc” “Now for then” When patent 1 ISSUES, the application for patent 1 becomes prior art against patent 2 AS OF THE FILING DATE OF PATENT If patent 1 never issues, earlier filed application never becomes prior art

28 Topic 2: Inventive entities The prior application of A can be cited against the later application of A + B under 35 USC 102(e) Different “inventive entities” create prior art against each other

29 MPEP (k) Provisional Rejection … Under 35 U.S.C. 102(e) … Where two applications of different inventive entities are copending, not published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b), and the filing dates differ, a provisional rejection under 35 U.S.C. 102(e) … should be made in the later filed application...

30 MPEP (f) (cont’d) Note that, where there are joint inventors, only one inventor [need be] be different for the inventive entities to be different and a rejection under 35 U.S.C. 102(e) is applicable even if there are some inventors in common between the application and the reference.

31 Inventive Entities Inventor A

32 Inventive Entities - Overlap Inventor A Inventors A + B

33 Combine applications – eliminate the reference File affadavit that claimed invention was derived from 102(e) prior art application Overcoming 102(e) rejection

34 102(e) amendments PCT Filings: 102(e)(2) “treaty filings” Published patent applications – section 122(b) – Changed 1999 – “Backdate” publication to filing date

35 Fine Points Foreign priority filings – Different treatment; only US Filings and their precise equivalents under PCT trigger section 102(e) – In re Hilmer (35 USC 119) Provisional applications – 35 USC 111 – Before 2008, assumed to trigger 102(e) – Now, solidly established: Ex parte Yamaguchi, 88 U.S.P.Q.2d 1606 (Bd.Pat.App. & Interf. 2008)

36 MPEP (f) Rejection Under 35 U.S.C. 102(e) [R-3] Examination of Applications 35 U.S.C. 102(e) is mostly utilized when the publication or issue date is too recent for the reference to be applied under 35 U.S.C. 102(a) or (b). In order to apply a reference under 35 U.S.C. 102(e), the inventive entity of the application must be different than that of the reference.

37 New “102(e)” 102(a)(2): Inventor gets patent UNLESS – ‘‘(2) the claimed invention was described in a patent issued under section 151, or in an application for patent published or deemed published under section 122(b), in which the patent or application, as the case may be, names another inventor and was effectively filed before the effective filing date of the claimed invention.

38 End of another “home court” favoring rule New 102(d)(1) and (2) now provide that the earliest of a US domestic OR foreign filed counterpart is effective prior art against a later application that claims the same subject matter Goodbye, In re Hilmer

39 Agenda Section 102(e) – Old and new Section 102(f)

40 102(f): “The (f) is for Fraud”

41 35 USC § 102(f) “A person shall be entitled to a patent unless – * * * (f) He did not himself invent the subject matter sought to be patented

42 “Campbell” Invention

43 Flexible Feed Track

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46 Zimmerman’s belt buckle

47 Two Main 102(f) Scenarios “Derivation” (invention theft) a la Campbell – Requirements: (1) Conception by Person A; (2) communication (enabling) to person B Inventorship rejections and disputes – PTO and litigation Related to 35 USC § 256 – Misjoinder (adding non-inventor to patent) – Non-joinder (omitting inventor from patent)

48 Typical derivation scenario ROBINSON LABS, INC., Plaintiff, v. WALLS INDUSTRIES, INC., Defendant. Sept. 30, WL (D.Minn.)

49 ROBINSON LABORATORIES

50

51 Robinson Labs 1. A multi-dimensional camouflaged garment, the garment serving to camouflage a wearer thereof by presenting an external appearance to an observer that tends to be indistinguishable from the environmental feature against which the wearer is observed, comprising: a garment external surface, being viewable by an observer and having a first portion and a second potion; the first portion of the garment external surface being formed of a substantially three dimensional material; and the second portion of the garment external surface being formed of a substantially two dimensional material.

52 the first portion of the garment external surface being formed of a substantially three dimensional material; and the second portion of the garment external surface being formed of a substantially two dimensional material. US Pat 5,695,835

53 Robinson Here, the crux of this analysis is whether the bow hunters first conceived of the invention claimed by the '835 Patent. The bow hunters put forth the idea of cutting off the leaves so as to remove the safety hazard. This was a specific settled idea addressing a solution to the problem at hand. Anyone with a pair of shears could reduce the invention to practice. The Court concludes that there is no material question of fact as to whether the bow hunters had conceived of an invention.

54 To establish derivation the party asserting invalidity must prove both prior conception of the invention by another and communication of that conception to the patentee “sufficient to enable [the patentee] to construct and successfully operate the invention.” International Rectifier Corp. v. IXYS Corp., 361 F.3d 1363, 1376 (Fed.Cir.2004).

55 Transocean Offshore Deepwater Drilling, Inc. v. GlobalSantaFe Corp. 434 F.Supp.2d 836 (SD Tex 2006) Genuine issue of material fact existed as to whether [fax], which included drawings of alleged infringer's offshore exploration and/or development drilling apparatus and which was sent to inventor of patented rig, was prior art for the purposes of showing derivation, precluding summary judgment in favor of patentee on alleged infringer's derivation defense. 35 U.S.C.A. § 102(f).

56 102(f) and “nonjoinder” "If nonjoinder of an actual inventor is proved by clear and convincing evidence, a patent is rendered invalid." Pannu v. Iolab Corp., 155 F.3d 1344, 1349 (Fed.Cir.1998). -- at 1349.

57 However, "[i]f a patentee can demonstrate that inventorship can be corrected as provided by [35 U.S.C. § 256], a district court must order correction of the patent, thus saving it from being rendered invalid." Id. at 1350.

58 New Derivation Provision § 291. Derived Patents (a) IN GENERAL.—The owner of a patent may have relief by civil action against the owner of another patent that claims the same invention and has an earlier effective filing date, if the invention claimed in such other patent was derived from the inventor of the invention claimed in the patent owned by the person seeking relief under this section.


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