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Western Electric, models 299 and 323, from 1915 to the 1920s.

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Presentation on theme: "Western Electric, models 299 and 323, from 1915 to the 1920s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Western Electric, models 299 and 323, from 1915 to the 1920s

2 1915 single-button mic

3 1920 Western Electric 387

4 WE 1B

5 1925 WE 1B

6 Neumann "bottle" condenser mic 1928

7 1931 RCA 44A

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9 1939 Western Electric 639A

10 This small condenser mic is a Philips 9561 developed in 1940

11 1949 Neumann U47

12 Neumann M49 condenser mic 1952

13 1954 Neumann KM Neumann KM54

14 1928tel3[1].mov

15 Dynamic Microphone Using this electromagnet principle, the dynamic microphone uses a wire coil and magnet to create the audio signal. Using this electromagnet principle, the dynamic microphone uses a wire coil and magnet to create the audio signal. The diaphragm is attached to the coil. The diaphragm is attached to the coil. When the diaphragm vibrates in response to incoming sound waves, the coil moves backwards and forwards past the magnet When the diaphragm vibrates in response to incoming sound waves, the coil moves backwards and forwards past the magnet This creates a current in the coil which is channeled from the microphone along wires This creates a current in the coil which is channeled from the microphone along wires

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17 Dynamic Microphone

18 Condenser Microphone Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. Requires voltage between 9 and 48 volts (Phantom Power) Requires voltage between 9 and 48 volts (Phantom Power) The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. They are not ideal for high-volume work, as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort. They are not ideal for high-volume work, as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort.

19 Condenser Microphone A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them. In the condenser mic, one of these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them. In the condenser mic, one of these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. The diaphragm vibrates when struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance The diaphragm vibrates when struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance Specifically, when the plates are closer together, capacitance increases and a charge current occurs Specifically, when the plates are closer together, capacitance increases and a charge current occurs When the plates are further apart, capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs. When the plates are further apart, capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs.

20 Condenser Microphone

21 Electret Condenser Microphone The electret condenser mic uses a special type of capacitor which has a permanent voltage built in during manufacture. The electret condenser mic uses a special type of capacitor which has a permanent voltage built in during manufacture. This is somewhat like a permanent magnet, in that it doesn't require any external power for operation. This is somewhat like a permanent magnet, in that it doesn't require any external power for operation. good electret condenser mics usually include a pre-amplifier which does still require power. good electret condenser mics usually include a pre-amplifier which does still require power. Other than this difference, you can think of an electret condenser microphone as being the same as a normal condenser. Other than this difference, you can think of an electret condenser microphone as being the same as a normal condenser. Still require a built in amplifier (transistor) Still require a built in amplifier (transistor) Powered with a battery housed in the casing. Powered with a battery housed in the casing.

22 Ribbon Microphone A ribbon microphone is a type of dynamic microphone that uses a thin aluminum or duraluminum ribbon placed between the poles of a magnet to generate voltages by electromagnetic induction. A ribbon microphone is a type of dynamic microphone that uses a thin aluminum or duraluminum ribbon placed between the poles of a magnet to generate voltages by electromagnetic induction. Principle: the air movement associated with the sound moves the metallic ribbon in the magnetic field, generating an imaging voltage between the ends of the ribbon which is proportional to the velocity of the ribbon Principle: the air movement associated with the sound moves the metallic ribbon in the magnetic field, generating an imaging voltage between the ends of the ribbon which is proportional to the velocity of the ribbon Characterized as a "velocity" microphone. Characterized as a "velocity" microphone.

23 Ribbon Microphone

24 Piezoelectric Microphone the ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure; to convert vibrations into an electrical signal. the ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure; to convert vibrations into an electrical signal. often used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical instruments often used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical instruments to sense drum hits for triggering electronic samples to sense drum hits for triggering electronic samples

25 Dynamic Microphone Advantages Relatively cheap Relatively cheap Rugged. Rugged. Can be easily miniaturized. Can be easily miniaturized.Disadvantages The uniformity of response to different frequencies does not match that of the ribbon or condenser microphones. The uniformity of response to different frequencies does not match that of the ribbon or condenser microphones.

26 Condenser Microphone Advantages Best overall frequency response Best overall frequency response Best Transient Response Best Transient ResponseDisadvantages Expensive Expensive May pop and crack when miked close May pop and crack when miked close Requires a battery or external power supply Requires a battery or external power supply

27 Transient Response a transient is commonly defined as "an abrupt or sudden change in level." We associate transients with sharp, harsh sounds: Think of cymbal crashes, hard- strummed acoustic guitar, and a singer's T's and CH's. a transient is commonly defined as "an abrupt or sudden change in level." We associate transients with sharp, harsh sounds: Think of cymbal crashes, hard- strummed acoustic guitar, and a singer's T's and CH's. A microphone's ability to accurately capture these transients is known as transient response A microphone's ability to accurately capture these transients is known as transient response

28 Transient Response the motion of all diaphragms is governed by the laws of physics. Specifically, inertia: the motion of all diaphragms is governed by the laws of physics. Specifically, inertia: Lighter diaphragms require less energy to move than heavier diaphragms. Consequently, lighter diaphragms react quicker than heavier diaphragms to abrupt changes in sound energy. That is, they have a faster transient response. Lighter diaphragms require less energy to move than heavier diaphragms. Consequently, lighter diaphragms react quicker than heavier diaphragms to abrupt changes in sound energy. That is, they have a faster transient response.

29 Transient Response Generally, we find the lightest diaphragms in small diaphragm condensers while large diaphragm dynamic mics have larger moving-coil diaphragms. Generally, we find the lightest diaphragms in small diaphragm condensers while large diaphragm dynamic mics have larger moving-coil diaphragms. As such, condenser mics are more responsive to transients than dynamic mics. As such, condenser mics are more responsive to transients than dynamic mics.

30 Transient Response Condenser mics, better represent the transients we hear and, as such, yield a more detailed sound. Condenser mics, better represent the transients we hear and, as such, yield a more detailed sound. High frequency sounds tend to produce sharper transients, in which smaller diaphragm mics are better at capturing nuance. High frequency sounds tend to produce sharper transients, in which smaller diaphragm mics are better at capturing nuance.

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32 Ribbon Microphone Advantages Adds "warmth" to the tone by accenting lows when close-miked. Adds "warmth" to the tone by accenting lows when close-miked.Disadvantages Accenting lows sometimes produces "boomy" bass Accenting lows sometimes produces "boomy" bass Very susceptible to wind noise. Not suitable for outside use unless very well shielded. Very susceptible to wind noise. Not suitable for outside use unless very well shielded.

33 PZM ( Pressure Zone Microphone ) PZM is an acronym for Pressure Zone Microphone PZM is an acronym for Pressure Zone Microphone It can also be used to describe a boundary microphone in which the mic capsule faces the boundary a few thousandths of an inch away. PZM is a trademark of Crown International. It can also be used to describe a boundary microphone in which the mic capsule faces the boundary a few thousandths of an inch away. PZM is a trademark of Crown International.

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35 Polar Patterns used in Live Sound

36 Cardioid

37 Cardioid Polar Pattern

38 Supercardioid Polar Pattern

39 Omni directional Polar Pattern

40 SHURE SM 58 SHURE SM 58 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Vocal Vocal

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42 SHURE Beta 58a SHURE Beta 58a Dynamic Dynamic Super Cardioid Super Cardioid Vocal Vocal

43 Shure Beta 58a

44 SHURE 87a SHURE 87a Condenser Condenser Super Cardioid Super Cardioid Vocal Vocal

45 AKG C5 AKG C5 Cardioid Cardioid Condenser Condenser Vocal Vocal

46 SENNHEISER e865 SENNHEISER e865 Condenser Condenser Supercardioid Supercardioid Vocal Vocal

47 SENNHEISER 835 SENNHEISER 835 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Vocal Vocal

48 AKG 535 AKG 535 Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Bass cut/rolloff filters Bass cut/rolloff filters switchable pad switchable pad Vocal Vocal Instrument Instrument

49 AUDIX OM-5 AUDIX OM-5 Dynamic Dynamic Hyper Cardioid Hyper Cardioid Vocal Vocal

50 Beyer M500 Beyer M500 Dynamic Ribbon Dynamic Ribbon Hyper Cardioid Hyper Cardioid Vocal Vocal

51 Shure PG 81 Shure PG 81 Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Acoustic Guitar Acoustic Guitar Cymbals Cymbals Piano Piano Strings Strings Woodwind Woodwind

52 AA x 1

53 SHURE SM 57 SHURE SM 57 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Vocal Vocal Instrument Instrument Guitar Guitar Drums Drums Percussion Percussion

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55 SHURE BETA 57A SHURE BETA 57A Dynamic Dynamic Cardiod Cardiod Vocal Vocal Instrument Instrument Guitar Guitar Drums Drums Percussion Percussion

56 Shure Beta 57a

57 AKG C1000 AKG C1000 Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Hyper Cardioid Hyper Cardioid 9 volt Battery 9 volt Battery Strings Strings Overheads Overheads Speech Speech

58 Sennheiser md 441 Sennheiser md 441 Dynamic Dynamic Super Cardioid Super Cardioid Vocal Vocal Horns Horns Percussion Percussion Piano Piano Instrument Instrument

59 Sennheiser MD 409 U3 Sennheiser MD 409 U3 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Guitar Guitar Toms Toms Horns Horns Leslie Leslie

60 Sennheiser 609 Sennheiser 609 Dynamic Dynamic Super Cardiod Super Cardiod Guitar Guitar Toms Toms Horns Guitar Horns Guitar Toms Toms Horns Horns

61 Sennheiser E906 Sennheiser E906 Dynamic Dynamic Super Cardioid Super Cardioid Guitar Guitar Toms Toms Horns Guitar Horns Guitar Toms Toms Horns Horns

62 SHURE SM81 SHURE SM81 Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Overheads Overheads Acoustic Guitar Acoustic Guitar Violin Violin

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64 AKG 411 AKG 411 Condenser Condenser Contact Pickup Contact Pickup Violin Violin Guitar Guitar Mandolin Mandolin Piano Piano

65 EV PL20/RE20 EV PL20/RE20 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Broadcast Speech Broadcast Speech Kick Drum Kick Drum Bass Amp Bass Amp Horns Horns

66 Sennheiser 421 Sennheiser 421 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Kick Kick Toms Toms Horns Horns Bass Amp Bass Amp

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68 SHURE BETA 52 SHURE BETA 52 Dynamic Dynamic Cardiod Cardiod Kick Drum Kick Drum Bass Cabinet Bass Cabinet Horns Horns

69 Shure Beta 52

70 Beta 91 Beta 91 Condenser Condenser PZM PZM Kick Drum Kick Drum Piano Piano Theatre Theatre

71 Sennheiser 602 Sennheiser 602 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Kick Drum Kick Drum Bass Cabinet Bass Cabinet Tuba Tuba

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73 AKG D112 AKG D112 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Kick Drum Kick Drum Bass Cabinet Bass Cabinet

74 AUDIX D2 AUDIX D2 Dynamic Dynamic Hyper cardioid Hyper cardioid Kick Drum Kick Drum Congas Congas Sax Sax Woodwind Woodwind Brass Brass

75 AUDIX D4 AUDIX D4 Hyper Cardioid Hyper Cardioid Kick Drum Kick Drum Timpani Timpani Toms Toms Piano Piano Sax Sax Any other instrument requiring precise low frequency reproduction Any other instrument requiring precise low frequency reproduction

76 AUDIX D6 AUDIX D6 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Kick Drum Kick Drum Any other instrument requiring precise low frequency reproduction Any other instrument requiring precise low frequency reproduction

77 AKG D4 AKG D4 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Drums Drums Percussion Percussion Wind Instrument Wind Instrument Guitar Cabinets Guitar Cabinets

78 AKG C519 AKG C519 Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Trumpet Trumpet Sax Sax Trombone Trombone Tuba Tuba

79 AKG C518 AKG C518 Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Drums Drums Percussion Percussion

80 SENNHEISER 604 SENNHEISER 604 Dynamic Dynamic Cardioid Cardioid Brass Brass Percussion Percussion Snare Snare Congas Congas Leslie Leslie

81 Modular Microphones

82 AKG CK 31 AKG CK 31 Condenser Condenser Cardiod Cardiod Speech Speech

83 AKG CK 32 AKG CK 32 Condenser Condenser Omni directional Omni directional Ambient Pickup Ambient Pickup

84 AKG CK 33 AKG CK 33 Condenser Condenser Hyper cardiod Hyper cardiod Speech Speech Groups of People Groups of People

85

86 AKG CK 55L AKG CK 55L Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Lavaliere Lavaliere Lecturers Lecturers House of worship House of worship TV TV Video production Video production Wireless Compatible Wireless Compatible

87 AKG CK 77WR AKG CK 77WR Condenser Condenser Omni directional Omni directional Lavaliere Lavaliere Lecturers Lecturers House of worship House of worship TV TV Video production Video production Wireless Compatible Wireless Compatible

88 Shure Microflex MX 183, MX184, MX 185 Shure Microflex MX 183, MX184, MX 185 Condenser Condenser 183 = Omni directional 183 = Omni directional 184 = Super Cardioid 184 = Super Cardioid 185 = Cardioid 185 = Cardioid Lecturers Lecturers House of worship House of worship TV TV Video production Video production Wireless Compatible Wireless Compatible

89 Shure Microflex Shure Microflex Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Supercardioid Supercardioid Omni Directional Omni Directional Speech Speech Podium Mic Podium Mic

90 AKG HC 577 AKG HC 577 Dynamic Dynamic Omni Directional Omni Directional Wireless Compatible Wireless Compatible

91 Shure PG30TQG Shure PG30TQG Condenser Condenser Cardioid Cardioid Wireless Compatible Wireless Compatible

92 Neumann KU 100 Neumann KU 100 Condenser Condenser Binaural Binaural When listening through high-quality headphones it gives the illusion of being right at the scene of the acoustic events. When listening through high-quality headphones it gives the illusion of being right at the scene of the acoustic events. Acoustic research. Acoustic research.

93 Direct Box

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