Presentation on theme: "Development of respiratory system Dr. Lubna Nazli."— Presentation transcript:
Development of respiratory system Dr. Lubna Nazli
2 Objectives:- Formation of the Lung Buds. Development of Larynx. Development of Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs. Maturation of the Lungs. Congenital anomalies of the respiratory system. Development of the diaphragm.
3 Formation of the Lung Buds:- When the embryo is approximately 4 weeks old, the respiratory diverticulum (lung bud) appears as an outgrowth from the ventral wall of the foregut. So epithelium of the internal lining of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, as well as that of the lungs, is entirely of endodermal origin. The cartilaginous, muscular, and connective tissue components of the trachea and lungs are derived from splanchnic mesoderm surrounding the foregut. the tracheoesophageal septum, divides the foregut into a dorsal portion, the esophagus, and a ventral portion, the trachea and lung buds.
6 Development of Larynx:- The internal lining of the larynx originates from endoderm, but the cartilages and muscles originate from mesenchyme of the fourth and sixth pharyngeal arches. proliferating mesenchyme of the two arches transforms into the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages. Recanalization produce a pair of lateral recesses, the laryngeal ventricles. These recesses are bounded by folds of tissue that differentiate into the false and true vocal cords.
The superior laryngeal nerve innervates derivatives of the fourth pharyngeal arch, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates derivatives of the sixth pharyngeal arch. Since musculature of the larynx is derived from mesenchyme of the fourth and sixth pharyngeal arches, all laryngeal muscles are innervated by branches of the tenth cranial nerve, the vagus nerve.
8 Development of Larynx (cont.):- Pharyngeal arches: Each arch contains a cartilaginous component, a cranial nerve, an artery, and a muscular component.
10 Development of Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs:- During its separation from the foregut, the lung bud forms the trachea and two lateral out pocketings, the bronchial buds. At the beginning of the fifth week, each of these buds enlarges to form right and left main bronchi. The right then forms three secondary bronchi, and the left, two. By the end of the sixth month, approximately 17 generations of subdivisions have formed. Before the bronchial tree reaches its final shape, however, an additional 6 divisions form during postnatal life.
11 Development of Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs:-
15 Development of pleura:- The pleuroperitoneal and pleuropericardial folds separate the pericardioperitoneal canals from the peritoneal and pericardial cavities, respectively, and the remaining spaces form the primitive pleural cavities. The spanchnic mesoderm, which covers the outside of the lung, develops into the visceral pleura. The somatic mesoderm layer, covering the body wall from the inside, becomes the parietal pleura. The space between the parietal and visceral pleura is the pleural cavity.
16 Development of pleura : Growth of the lung buds into the pericardioperitoneal canals. Note the pleuropericardial folds.
19 Congenital anomalies of the respiratory system:- Abnormalities in partitioning of the esophagus and trachea by the tracheoesophageal septum result in esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs). Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (hyaline membrane disease), When surfactant is insufficient, the air-water (blood) surface membrane tension becomes high, so alveoli will collapse during expiration. Blind-ending trachea with absence of lungs.
Agenesis of one lung. Abnormal divisions of the bronchial tree. Ectopic lung lobes arising from the trachea or esophagus from additional respiratory buds of the foregut that develop independently of the main respiratory system. Congenital cysts of the lung, which are formed by dilation of terminal or larger bronchi.
21 Congenital anomalies of the respiratory system:-
22 Development of diaphragm:- The diaphragm divides the body cavity into the thoracic and peritoneal cavities. It develops from four components:- (a) septum transversum (central tendon): Is a thick plate of mesodermal tissue occupying the space between the thoracic cavity and the stalk of the yolk sac. (b) pleuroperitoneal membranes. (c) dorsal mesentery of the esophagus. (d) muscular components of the body wall.
25 Development of diaphragm (cont.):- Congenital diaphragmatic hernia A. Abdominal surface of the diaphragm showing a large defect of the pleuroperitoneal membrane. B. Hernia of the intestinal loops and part of the stomach into the left pleural cavity. The heart and mediastinum are frequently pushed to the right and the left lung is compressed.