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Respiratory Systems Respiratory Tree.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Systems Respiratory Tree."— Presentation transcript:

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10 Respiratory Systems

11 Respiratory Tree

12 Nasopharyngeal Passages

13 Nares Aka Nostrils Two pair of nares –External –Internal (choanae) Separated by septum (cartilage and vomer bone) Each choanus contains appx nasal hairs

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16 Divisions of Nasal Fossa Respiratory Contains three conchae (superior, medial, inferior) that alter airflow through nasal fossa Cools, filters and moistens air Olfactory Cilia protrude through mucus covered epithelium. Cilia harbor 40 million olfactory receptor neurons capable of detecting 10,000+ odors

17 Nasal Cycle Blood flow to nasal conchae alternates every hours, effectively changing which nostril we breathe throughBlood flow to nasal conchae alternates every hours, effectively changing which nostril we breathe through Example of a chaotic ultradian cycle (alternating throughout 24 hr period) controlled by hypothalamusExample of a chaotic ultradian cycle (alternating throughout 24 hr period) controlled by hypothalamus

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19 Pharynx

20 Pharyngeal Form & Function Form: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Larygopharynx Function Common conductive pathway for digestive and respiratory system

21 Tonsils Lymphoid tissue = first line of immune defense for aerodigestive tract Largest pre- puberty; atrophy after puberty

22 Epiglottis Form: –Elastic cartilage –Contains gustatory papillae (taste buds) Function: –Swallowing elevated hyoid bone, causing epiglottis to close off trachea, preventing aspiration

23 Larynx

24 Laryngeal Form & Function Form: 9 cartilaginous rings attached to hyoid bone Vestibular folds (protection) Mucosal folds (vibration) Function Organ of phonation (vocal sounds)

25 In infancy, larynx corresponds to C2-C3 vertebrae As child ages, larynx descends to C5-C6, allowing for development of speech

26 Trachea

27 Tracheal Form & Function Form 22mm diameter x 10-16cm length Ventral to esophagus C –shaped cartilaginous rings Mucosal Ciliated Function Conduct air to bronchi

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29 BRONCHI

30 Broncheal Form & Function Form D-shaped tubes with attached visceral muscle Each bronchus subdivides into –2-3 Lobular Bronchi 10 bronchioles –Terminal bronchioles »Respiratory bronchioles Function Bifurcation of airflow from trachea to lungs

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32 Lungs

33 Divisions of the Mammalian Lung Lobes –3 right/2 left –Each lobe has discreet Pleural Cavity for protection and lubrication Segments Lobules

34  Pleurisy (pleuritis) is the inflammation of the pleural lining  Inhalation and exhalation cause the pleura to rub against each other, causing intense chest pain

35 ALVEOLI

36 ALVEOLAR FORM 2-11 alveolar ducts per respiratory bronchiole, each containing 5-6 alveolar sacs 700 million alveolar sacs = ~ m 2 surface area Interior of alveolus contains squamous epithelium, pulmonary surfactants and macrophages 70% of alveolus covered with capillary bed

37 ALVEOLAR FUNCTION Primary site of gas exchange in lungs Oxygen diffuses from alveolar lumen, through epithelium and into capillary bed. Carbon Dioxide diffuses from capillary bed into alveolar lumen

38 Thoracic Diaphragm Dome-shaped musculofibrous septum located between chest and abdominal cavities Movement of diaphragm changes pressure in chest cavity, facilitating inspiration and exhalation

39 What is the connection?

40 Gas Air entering lungs - Inhaled air Air leaving lungs - Exhaled air Oxygen21%16% carbon dioxide 0.03%3% Nitrogen78% water vapor small amountsignificantly moist Inhaled v. Exhaled Air

41 Nitrogen Narcosis

42 Why Does Tissue Suffocation Occur When Trapped In A Fire?

43 Carbon Monoxide & Hemoglobin

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45 Chemical Regulation of Respiratory Rate pH of blood measured in carotid arteries (neck) Info relayed to pons & medulla of the hindbrain If pH is too acidic, rate of breathing must increase If pH too basic, rate of breathing must slow down Messages sent to diaphragm via Vagus nerve

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47 NEGATIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

48 RESPIRATION & BOYLE’S LAW P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Ambient Air Pressure = appx lb/in 2 As size of thoracic cavity increases, pressure in chest drops below ambient pressure As size of thoracic cavity decreases, pressure increases above ambient pressure

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54 High Altitude Cerebral Edema

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57 Henry Heimlich Developed abdominal thrust maneuver to treat choking (1974) Technique downgraded by American Red Cross due to risk of injury (2006)

58 How Does The Heimlich Maneuver Work In Terms Of Boyle’s Law?

59 How Does Boyle’s Law Explain A Collapsed Lung?


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