Presentation on theme: "Circulatory and Respiratory Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Chapter 38Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
2The Circulatory System Transport and distributionCardiovascular system: connects all the muscles and organs of the body.Driven by the heartKinds of molecules it moves:Nutrients from digested foodOxygen from lungsMetabolic wastes IE carbon dioxideHormones: substance that help coordinate activities of the bodyDistributes heat.
3Blood vesselsarteries: vessels that carry blood away from the heart, oxygen rich (we typically think of them as being red)Walls have three layers of tissueEndothelium (innermost) single layer of cellsSmooth muscle surrounds it (elastic fibers)Protective connective tissue, also elastic, on the outer most.Capillaries: is where we exchange gases, nutrients, hormones, and other molecules with each cell.No cell in your body is more than a few cell diameters away from a capillaryWalls are only 1 cell thickAlso very narrow
4Veins: carry blood towards the heart Veins: carry blood towards the heart. (we typically think of them as being blue)Walls of veins are much thinner than arteriesLow pressure (arteries are very high pressure)No pulsing pressure (arteries do)Typically larger in diameter than arteriesHave one way valves (flap of tissue to prevent back flow)Varicose veins: weak and dilated, allow some back flow.Dilated veins in the anal area are called hemorrhoids.
9Lymphatic systemCollects and recycles fluids leaked from the cardiovascular system and is involved in fighting infections.Made up of a network of vessels called lymphatic vessels and bean-shaped structures called lymph nodes.Lymph: leaked fluidLymph nodes in various parts of the body sometimes get tender or swell, typically when fighting an infection of some kind.
11The Blood!!!Components of bloodplasma: the liquid portion of blood, 90% water, 10% solutes (found below)Metabolites and wasteSalts (ions) mainly sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate important in maintaining osmotic balance and regulating pH.Proteins: most abundant of the solutes, help with clotting, balance, and even antibodies.
12The rest of the blood (about 40%) is made up of three parts, red and white blood cells and platelets.Red blood cells (RBC)Make up most of thisCells that carry oxygen (and there are a bunch of them)Also called erythrocytesPacked with hemoglobin (an iron containing protein that binds oxygen in the lungs)Mature RBC’s do not have a nucleus, therefore can not repair themselvesBiconcave shapeShort life span (about 4 months)Constantly being produced by stem cells and specialized cells in bone marrow.Anemia: oxygen carrying ability is reduced
14White Blood Cells (WBC) Primary job is to defend the body against disease.Larger than RBC’sMany different types (each with different immune function)Some destroy, some produce antibodies (proteins that mark foreign substances for destruction)
16PlateletsPinched off bits of cytoplasm from large cells in bone marrowPlay an important role in blood clottingWhen a hole develops, blood loss must be stoppedPlatelets arrive at location, change shape, get larger, and release a substance that makes them very sticky.This eventually forms a sticky lump that plugs the holeLarger wounds: platelets releasing a clotting enzyme that activates a series of chemical reactions forming fibrin.Fibrin threads a net trapping RBC’s and platelets which will then plug the hole.Lack of this ability is known as hemophilia.
19Blood Types!!Blood type is determined by the presence or absence of a specific carbohydrate on the surface of the RBC.ABO blood group system.Four types of blood: A, B, AB and O.A and B means that there is the presence of a carb. And it acts as an antigen (antigens cause your body to produce anti-bodies, provokes an immune response).AB has both the A and B antigenO has neither of these.Know the chart on page 879 Table 1: blood types.
20AB blood is the universal recipients O blood is the universal donors.Rh FactorThis is another important antigen on the surface of RBC’sPresent they are Rh+Absent they are Rh-Rh- mother will generate anti-bodies which would attack a fetus with Rh+, and destroy it.
21The HeartTwo separate circulatory loopsPulmonary circ. Heart to lung and backright side of heart is responsibleSystemic circ. Heart to body and backleft side of heart is responsibleAtria: (atrium singular) chambers that receive bloodVentricles: thicker walls, pump blood away from heart
22Path of blood flow (abbreviated) Vena Cava’s (I and S) return blood from body to Rt. AtriumRt. Atrium to Rt. VentricleRt. Ventricle pumps to the pulm. Art. And to the lungRt and Lft lung perform gas exchangePulm. Veins return oxygen rich blood to Lft. AtriumLft Atrium to lft ventricleOut through the Aorta (largest artery of the body)
24- Coronary arteries: carry oxygen rich blood to the heart (provides needed oxygen to pump heart).
25- Sinoatrial node: in upper rt atrium - Sinoatrial node: in upper rt atrium. Responsible for contraction of the heart (it is the pacemaker of the heart).
26Cells that make up the sinoatrial node, “fire” electrical stimulus at a regular rhythm. Each stimulus is followed by a contraction.Heart contractions average about 72 times per minute.Blood pressureHeart disease is one of the leading causes of death among people in the USBP: is the force exerted by blood as it moves through blood vessels.Expressed in terms of- millimeters of mercury.Usually reported as the systolic (top) over the diastolic (bottom) pressures.Systolic: pressure when the heart contracts/blood flows threw arteriesDiastolic: pressure exerted when the heart relaxes.
27Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. Pulse: series of pressure waves within an artery, an indicator of heart rate.EKG: electrocardiogram, machine used to monitor heart function.Heart attack: occurs when an area of the heart muscle stops working. (the area dies)Stroke: When an area of the brain dies (because the artery as popped or clotted and blood can’t get to the area)Factors contributing to:CigarettesLack of physical activityDiet high is saturated fatsUnmanaged stress
28How to tell if someone is having a stroke: F.A.S.TF: face drooping. You ask the person to smile, if one side droops, call 911A: arm weakness. Have them raise their arms, if one side doesn’t go up, call 911S: slurring. Ask to repeat a simple sentence, slurring, call 911T: Time. Is of the essence. Any of the above, call 911
29How to tell if someone is having a heart attack: Most important is that men and women HA’s are not the sameIT usually isn’t like in the movies!!!Every person could be different, if suspected, then act, TIME is criticalSome examples:Chest discomfort or painDiscomfort in other parts of the bodyArms, neck, jawShortness of breathNausea, clamminess, sweatingExtreme weakness and fatigue (especially if it is sudden)
31The Respiratory System Gas exchange is the way your body obtains and releases gases.In through the mouth or noseAbout 21% is oxygen gasHairs in your nose help filter dust and particles.Tissues in nasal cavity moisten and warm the airVocab. for the path of air:Pharynx: tube, passage way from nose and mouth.Larynx: next part, also called the voice box.Epiglottis: covers the opening to the larynx when you swallow foods and liquids.
32Trachea: long, straight tube in chest cavity, also called the windpipe, divides into two bronchi, which lead to each lung.Bronchi divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles.Alveoli: clusters of air sacs, smallest bronchioles, where gas exchange occurs.Cells, lining the bronchi, secrete mucus, that traps foreign particles, which is directed upward, by cilia, where it is swallowed and digested.The lungsOne of the largest organs in the bodyDiaphragm: below longs, powerful muscle, aids in respiration.
34Breathinginhalation: rib muscles contract, diaphragm contracts, moving downward. Volume on chest increases, this reduces air pressure within the cavity below atmospheric pressure. Air flows from high to low pressure, so therefore air is drawn into the lungs.Exhalation: passive process, rib cage and diaphragm muscles relax, returns ribs and diaphragm to normal position, decreases volume in chest cavity thus increasing air pressure in lungs, now pressures are reversed, so air is forced out.What controls how fast we breathe?Receptors in brain monitor levels of oxygen and carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide levels have a greater effect on breathingMore CO2 levels, the harder/deeper you breathe
35Oxygen transport (detailed steps on page 888) O2 reaches lungsO2 diffuses, via alveoli, into pulmonary capillariesO2 rich blood goes to heart, then out to bodyO2 diffuse into cells for cellular respirationCO2 presence changes RBC affinity for O2, CO2 diffuse from cells to bloodCO2 carried to heart (in the form of HCO3- ions)Heart pumps to lungsCO2 expelled.
37The forms of CO2 in transport CO2 is transported in 3 different formsDissolved in blood plasma (about 7%)Attached to hemoglobin (about 23 %)Carried as a bicarbonate ion, HCO3- (about 70%)
38Respiratory DiseasesAsthma: chronic (persisting for a long time) condition in which the bronchioles of the lungs become inflamed.Emphysema: chronic pulmonary disease resulting from a chemical imbalance that destroys elastic fibers in the lungs. Smoking is the number one cause (90%).Lung Cancer: One of the leading causes of death in the world today. Abnormal cell growth in lung tissue. Smoking is the major cause. Only 15% of patients diagnosed live more that 5 years.