Presentation on theme: "Respiratory system. Enduring understanding: The structure of organs affect their function."— Presentation transcript:
Enduring understanding: The structure of organs affect their function.
Essential Question: How do we breathe?
Functions of respiratory system: Gas exchange- oxygen to the blood carbon dioxide out of the blood
organs involved in respiratory system
Nose: -external nares = nostrils -nasal cavity -nasal septum - divides right and left half -conchae - three lobes - increase surface area -increase air turbulence -mucous covered -trap particles so don't go to lungs palate - partition between nasal and oral cavity - hard palate - bone -soft palate - tissue conchae
problem with nose: -rhinitis - inflammation of nasal mucosa -cause - cold viruses, allergens - sinusitis - sinus inflammation -passageways to sinuses are blocked or infected
Pharynx (throat): -passageway for food and air -auditory tubes drain into nasopharynx -tonsils located here (immune sys) -pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) -palatine tonsil -lingual tonsil problem: tonsillitis - inflammation of tonsils (remove pharyngeal and palatine tonsils) nasopharynx oropharynx laryghgopharynx pharyngeal tonsil palatine tonsil lingual tonsil
Larynx (voice box): -air and food go through -inferior to pharynx -thyroid cartilage = Adam's apple -epiglottis at top -covers trachea when swallowing food -cough reflex -doesn't work when unconscious looking down from top 01.jpg vocal folds glottis
Trachea (windpipe): hea/ -lined with ciliated mucosa -propels mucus -catches dust particled -inhibited by smoking -C rings of hyaline cartilage -support -allow food to be swallowed in esophagus -Heimlich maneuver
Tracheostomy - provides alternate route for air if trachea blocked 015/
Primary Bronchi: -branches at end of trachea -run obliquely -right = wider, shorter and straighter, food usually gets lodged here -air entering this area is warm, cleansed and moist -goes to smaller subdivisions alveoli.jpg
Lungs: ADE-7F5D5E762256%7D/clean_lung_hr.jpg -paired -in thoracic cavity -visceral pleura - covering on lungs -parietal pleura - walls of thoracic cavity -pleural fluid in between -Pleurisy = inflammation of pleura -due to decreased fluid -painful - or increased fluid -creates pressure on lungs -less painful
Bronchioles: -smallest branches, farthest from bronchi -have cartilage in walls Alveoli: -air sacs -site of gas exchange -millions of these in lungs -rest of tissue = stroma -elastic connective -give "sponginess"
SEM of Human lung tissue
-surface area of lung tissue of healthy man = square meters -in alveoli - have macrophages that pick up bacteria, carbon particles and debris -have surfactant = lipid material produced by alveolar cells -lower surface tension of water lining the cells so that the alveoli do not collapse between breaths -premie babies (before weeks) do not make this yet -called infant respiratory distress syndrome
Mechanics of breathing: -"Volume changes lead to pressure changes which lead to flow of gases to equalize pressure" Inspiration: -diaphragm and external intercostals contract -diaphragm moves inferiorly and flattens -thoracic cavity increases in size -lungs attached to thoracic cavity stretch -gases in lungs spread to fill space, decreases gas pressure -creates a vacuum to suck air in -when internal pressure = external pressure inspiration stops
Expiration: -depends on elasticity lungs rather than muscles -inspiratory muscles relax -ribcage retracts -lungs recoil -volume decreases and gas pressure increases above atmospheric pressure -gases flow out
nonrespiratory movements: -due to reflexes 1. cough- clears lower passageways 2. sneeze-clears upper respiratory passageways 3. crying-emotion mechanism 4. laughing-emotion mechanism 5. hiccups-spasms of diaphragm, irritation of diaphragm or phrenic nerve 6. yawn-ventilates all alveoli
Respiratory volumes: Normal breathing ~ 500 ml. = tidal volume (TV) inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) = amount of air taken in forcilby over the tidal volume ~ ml. expiratory reserve volume (ERV) = amount of air forcibly exhales after tidal volume ~ 1200 ml residual volume = air left in lungs after ERV blown out -keeps alveoli inflated -allows continued gas exchange vital capacity = total amount of exchangable air = TV + IRV + ERV
Dead space volume - air that never reaches alveoli, is in conducting pathways measure respiratory volumes with respirometer
Problems with respiratory system: 1. hypoxia - lack of oxygen to tissues -bluish tinge to skin -due to anemia, pulmonary disease or impaired blood circulation 2. carbon monoxide poisoning -if present hemoglobin prefers this over oxygen to carry -due to fires, faulty furnaces -kills victims quietly, no signs
3. emphysema: -walls of alveoli break becoming larger and larger chambers -decreased gas exchange -fibrosis of tissue -barrel shaped chest due to overinflation of lungs 4. Bronchitis: - inflammation of bronchi (mucosa inflamed) -produce large quantities of mucus -can lead to pneumonia 5. cystic fibrosis: -lethal genetic disease (1 in 2400 children) -faulty CFTR protein - impairs regulation of Cl channels -oversecretion of thick mucus - clogs passageways -can lead to infections
7. Asthma: -chronic inflammation of bronchial passageways -can be triggered by allegies, stress, exercise -leads to constriction of airways and increase mucus production -can cause death if not treated -symptoms: coughing, wheezing 8. Lung cancer: -1/3 of all deaths in U.S. -aggressive, metastasizes quickly -low survival rate because diagnosed so late -cause - smoking, exposure to asbestos -treatment - removal of diseased lung radiation/chemotherapy