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Respiratory System Sarah Carrigan, Matt DiBiase, Riley Jacobs, and Amanda Kim.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Sarah Carrigan, Matt DiBiase, Riley Jacobs, and Amanda Kim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System Sarah Carrigan, Matt DiBiase, Riley Jacobs, and Amanda Kim

2 Respiratory System: General Facts Respiratory system can been seen in two zones: conducting zone and respiratory zone: o conducting: airways through which air travels  consists of the trachea, bronchi, and the parts of the lungs o respiratory: oxygen and carbon dioxide transported into and out of the bloodstream via alveoli and capillaries7 7) Rosenberger, Erich. "Structure and Function of Lungs."Sciences: Medical Science. Helium, n.d. Web. 10 Nov

3 How Does the Air Get Into the Lungs? - First, the diaphragm contracts and expands the chest chavity for breathing -the external intercostal muscles also contract, and lift the ribs out1 -As air enters the body, it is filtered by cilia2 -The cilia in the nasal and oral pharynxes, and in the trachea, trap the particles in mucus, preventing them from entering the lungs2 -The body also serves as a mechanism to warm and humidify the air2 1) "Control of Breathing: Biology of the Lungs and Airways: Merck Manual Home Edition."Merck & Co., Inc. - We believe the most important condition is the human one.. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov

4 Pathway of the Air -nostrils / mouth -nasal pharynx -oral pharynx -epiglottis -glottis -trachea -bronchi -bronchioles -alveoli4 3)" Anatomy of Your Child’s Respiratory System | HealthSheets | Wellness Library | Mount Nittany Medical Center." Mount Nittany Medical Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov )"Respiratory System." RCN D.C. Metro | High-Speed Internet, Digital Cable TV & Phone Service Provider. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov

5 What is the Role of the Diaphragm? 5) " YouTube - 3D view of diaphragm." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself.. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov

6 What is the Role of the Diaphragm? -The diaphragm is a dome-shaped sheet of muscle - It separates the chest cavity from the abdomen -When the diaphragm contracts (inspiration) it expands the lungs by expanding the chest cavity, creating a vacuum that pulls air into the lungs -The intercostal muscles help to move the ribs -When the diaphragm relaxes, the chest cavity becomes smaller, air is forced out, and the person exhales (expiration)6 6)" Control of Breathing: Biology of the Lungs and Airways: Merck Manual Home Edition."Merck & Co., Inc. - We believe the most important condition is the human one.. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov )"Voice lessons | How to sing in tune | Sing better | Singing lessons." How to sing in tune | Sing better | Singing lessons | Voice lessons. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov

7 Trachea - thick cartiledge tube that transports air to the bronchi Bronchi: made of cartiledge Bronchi branch into thousands of smaller, thinner tubes called bronchioles Alveoli: small air sacs that terminate the bronchioles, and allow for gas exchange capillaries: very small blood vessels, allow for gas exchange with alveolar sac pulmonary artery: delivers deoxygenated blood from the heart to alveoli pulmonary vein: brings oxygen-rich blood to the heart where it is pumped to other areas of body8 8)"Respiratory system function."National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov Main structures of the lungs involved in getting oxygen to the rest of the body:

8 Al veoli Structure -The alveoli are cupped sheets of epithelial cells with a basement membrane at its outer surface -Each alveoli is surrounded by tiny blood vessels called capillaries- connect to a network of arteries and veins that move blood through your body10 -2 types of alveolar epithelial cells: -Long cytoplasmic extension cells: spread out thinly along the alveolar walls -Compact cells: responsible for producing surfactant, a phospholipid which lines the alveoli and reduces surface tension at different volumes/ stability9 -The alveolar epithelium, capillary endothelium, and their respective basement membranes, make a thin respiratory membrane -There are more than 300 million alveoli in two adult lungs providing a surface area of about 160 m2 9)"Structure and function of the alveoli." Curoservice: The Neonatology Specialist Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov )" Exchanging Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide: Biology of the Lungs and Airways: Merck Manual Home Edition." Merck & Co., Inc. - We believe the most important condition is the human one.. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov

9 Specific Function of Alveoli deoxygenated blood is delivered by the pulmonary artery to alveoli to become oxygenated during exhalation: carbon dioxide is diffuses from the blood stream into the alveolar air sac CO2, once diffused back into air sacs, exit the body through exhalation 10 with higher concentration of CO2 in the blood stream, the concentration gradient is directed outwards from the blood into air sac With inhalations oxygen passively diffuses from the air sac across the alveolar membrane. WIth higher concentration of oxygen in air sac, concentration gradient is directed inwards towards the blood stream once in the blood stream, oxygen-rich blood then travels to the heart through the pulmonary vein and is pumped to other areas of body 10)"Structure and function of the alveoli." Curoservice: The Neonatology Specialist Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov .

10 REFERENCES 1) "Control of Breathing: Biology of the Lungs and Airways: Merck Manual Home Edition."Merck & Co., Inc. - We believe the most important condition is the human one.. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov . 11) "Voice lessons | How to sing in tune | Sing better | Singing lessons." How to sing in tune | Sing better | Singing lessons | Voice lessons. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov


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