Digestive System: How it works Food enters the mouth where saliva begins to work on it as it is chewed. It then travels to the esophagus to the stomach. Acids break the food down and allow nutrients to be absorbed. Bloods absorbs most nutrients in the small intestines The liver and gall bladder break down fats and the pancreas processes the sugar by making insulin The unused food enters the large intestine and passes through as feces
Respiratory System: How it works The diaphragm expands down towards the intestines and causes air to flow through the larynx and trachea to the lungs The air goes into the bronchus and is picked up by the circulatory system by the blood The blood carries it to all cells of the body where it delivers oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide waste The carbon dioxide is returned to the lungs where the diaphragm contracts forcing the lungs to push out the carbon dioxide
Respiratory System: Diseases Asthma Pneumonia Cancer
Circulatory System: Organs Heart Arteries [carry blood away from the heart] Veins [return blood to the heart] Capillaries
Circulatory System: How it works The atrium [upper heart] is the holding area for the blood. The blood enters by way of the veins, as a blue fluid. The veins carry the oxygen through the body with each beat of the heart. When the blood returns to the ventricles of the heart through the arteries, full of carbon dioxide. The blood is sent to the lungs to get rid of the carbon dioxide and to get more oxygen.
Superior Vena Cava Auxiliary Artery Inferior Vena Cava Aorta Femoral Artery & Vein Pulmonary Artery Heart Oxygenated Blood to body Deoxygenated Blood to Lungs Deoxygenated Blood from body Oxygenated Blood from lungs
Nervous System: How it works The brain sends out a message, which travels though the spinal cord to individual nerves. The nerves in a part of the body react to these messages. The body can send the message back to the brain where it is processed.
Nervous System: 3 Systems Central Nervous System: this system is made up of the brain and spinal cord is the center of the control and coordination of your body Peripheral Nervous System: this system included the nerves that reach the outer parts of your body Automatic Nervous System: nerves near the center of your body which controls automatic processes
Front Lobe of Cerebrum Parietal Lobe of Cerebrum Occipital Lobe of Cerebrum Corpus Callosum Cerebellum Spinal Cord Pituitary Gland Temporal Lobe of Cerebrum Pons Medulla Oblongata
Brain Terms Cerebellum - the part of the brain below the back of the cerebrum. It regulates balance, posture, movement, and muscle coordination. Corpus Callosum - a large bundle of nerve fibers that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In the lateral section, it looks a bit like a "C" on its side. Frontal Lobe of the Cerebrum - the top, front regions of each of the cerebral hemispheres. They are used for reasoning, emotions, judgment, and voluntary movement. Medulla Oblongata - the lowest section of the brainstem (at the top end of the spinal cord); it controls automatic functions including heartbeat, breathing, etc. Occipital Lobe of the Cerebrum - the region at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that contains the centers of vision and reading ability (located at the back of the head). Parietal Lobe of the Cerebrum - the middle lobe of each cerebral hemisphere between the frontal and occipital lobes; it contains important sensory centers (located at the upper rear of the head).
Brain Terms Pituitary Gland - a gland attached to the base of the brain (located between the Pons and the Corpus Callosum) that secretes hormones. Pons - the part of the brainstem that joins the hemispheres of the cerebellum and connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum. It is located just above the Medulla Oblongata. Spinal Cord - a thick bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the brain to the hip area, running through the spine (vertebrae). Temporal Lobe of the Cerebrum - the region at the lower side of each cerebral hemisphere; contains centers of hearing and memory (located at the sides of the head).