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Presentation on theme: " Mediastinum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mediastinum

2 Introduction


4 Boundaries A)Ant– sternum B)Post—vertebral column C)Sup—Thoracic inlet D)Inf—Diaphragm E)On each side— Mediastinal pleura.

5 Types A)Superior mediastinum B)Inferior mediastinum 1) Anterior 2) Middle 3) Posterior

6 Superior mediastinum 1)Boundaries Ant– Manubrium sterni Post—Upper 4 thoracic vertebrae Sup– Plane of thoracic inlet Inf—An imaginary plane passing through the sternal angle in front, & the lower border of the body of the 4 th thoracic vertebra. On each side– Mediatinal pleura

7 Contents 1)Trachea & oesophagus 2)Muscles origins of sternohyoid, sternothyroid, lower ends of longus colli. 3) Arteries Arch of aorta, Brachiocephalic, lt common carotid, lt subclavian. 4) Veins upper half of the svc, lt superior intercostal vein 5) Nerves—vagus, phrenic, cardiac, lt recurrent laryngeal 6) Thymus 7) Thoracic duct 8) lymphnode– paratracheal, Brachiocephalic, Tracheobronchial


9 Anterior Mediastinum Boundaries Ant—Body of sternum Post—pericardium Sup—Imaginary plane separating the sup mediastinum from the inf. Mediastinum Inf– Sup. Surface of diaphragm On each side– Mediastinal pleura

10 Contents A)Sternopericardial ligament B)Internal thoracic artery(Small mediastinal branches) C)Thymus(Lowest part) D)Areolar tissue E)Lymph nodes & lymphatics

11 Middle Mediastinum Boundaries Ant– pericardium Post—oesophagus, descending thoracic aorta, azygos vein On each side– Mediastinal pleura Contents 1)Heart 2)Veins –svc, azygous,pulmo 3)Nerves-phrenic,deep cardiac 4)Tracheobronchial lymph nodes.

12 Posterior Mediastinum Boundaries Ant—pericardium, trachea,pulmonary vessels, diaphragm. Post—8 th thoracic vertebrae & intervening discs. On each side—Mediastinal pleura

13 Contents 1)Oesophagus 2)Arteries—descending thoracic aorta & its branches 3)Veins—azygous, hemiazygous, accessory hemiazygous vein 4)Nerves—vagus, splanchnic, greater, lesser & least splanchinc nerves arising from the lower 8 th thoracic ganglia of the sympathetic chain 5)Lymph nodes– post mediastinal lying alongside the aorta & thoracic duct

14 Clinical Anatomy 1)Mediastinitis 2)Mediastinal syndrome Symptoms 1.Engorgement of veins in the upper half of the body 2.Dyspnoea, cough 3.Dysphagia 4.Hoarseness of voice 5.Intercostal neuralgia 6.Erosion of the vertebral bodies 7.Paralysis of the diaphragm

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