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ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland. Objectives  Define the term respiration.  Describe the functions of the respiratory system.

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Presentation on theme: "ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland. Objectives  Define the term respiration.  Describe the functions of the respiratory system."— Presentation transcript:

1 ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland

2 Objectives  Define the term respiration.  Describe the functions of the respiratory system.

3 Objectives  List and identify the structures of the respiratory system and describe the function of each.

4 Objectives  Describe the process of respiration.  Describe the mechanism by which the respiratory system helps to maintain homeostasis.

5 Objectives  Describe common diseases, disorders, and conditions of the respiratory system including signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and available treatment options.  Demonstrate knowledge of medical terminology related to the respiratory system verbally and in the written form.

6 Respiration  More than breathing in and out.  Process by which oxygen is obtained from the environment, delivered to the cells, and waste products such as carbon dioxide are removed from the body.

7 Terms  Respiration- Inhaling and exhaling facilitate the process of taking in oxygen and getting rid of waste CO2. Internal respiration- exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and body cells. External respiration- exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the circulatory system. Cellular respiration- the use of O2 by the cells of the body & production of CO2.  Ventilation- movement of air in & out of the lungs (breathing)

8 Functions of the Respiratory System  Pulmonary ventilation Inhalation Exhalation  Diffusion of gases Into and out of the blood  Transport to and from the cells (cellular respiration) Oxygen Carbon dioxide

9 Primary Structures of the Respiratory System  Nasal cavities  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Lungs  Diaphragm

10 Upper Respiratory Tract  Nose- Covered by skin and supported by bone and cartilage. Air enters through the external nares and coarse hairs line the internal part of the nares to act as filters.  Nasal Cavities Separated by nasal septum. Lining is made of ciliated epithelium (nasal mucosa). Highly vascularized, which warms inhaled air.  Nasal conchae Curved scroll-like bones Superior, middle, and inferior turbinates

11 Nasal Cavities  External nares (nostrils)  Nasal Cavities Nasal septum Conchae (turbinates)  Sinuses

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13 Sinuses Maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid ○ Named for associated bones Move mucus into nasal cavities Make skull lighter in weight

14 Paranasal Sinuses (Anterior)

15 Paranasal Sinuses (Lateral)

16 Upper Respiratory Tract  Pharynx Tubular structure Posterior to oral & nasal cavities Conducts air and food Three sections: ○ Nasopharynx ○ Oropharynx ○ Laryngopharynx Composed of muscle, lined with mucous membrane

17 Pharynx  Nasopharynx  Oropharynx  Laryngopharynx

18 Lower Respiratory Tract  Larynx “voice box” contains vocal cords (2 short fibrous bands that stretch across the interior of the larynx) The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis Connects pharynx to trachea Serves as part of the air passageway Lined with mucous membrane Composed of cartilaginous rings: ○ Thyroid Adam’s apple = thyroid cartilage ○ Cricoid Sellick’s maneuver

19 Lower Respiratory Tract  Larynx During swallowing, larynx elevates & epiglottis closes over opening to prevent food from entering Vocal cords-located on either side of glottis ○ Breathing- cords close over glottis. ○ Speaking- cords are stretched & exhaled air vibrates cords causing speech.

20 Larynx

21 Lower Respiratory Tract  Trachea “wind pipe” Extends from layrnx to carina Composed of 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. ○ Flexible, keep trachea continuously open.  Primary bronchi = right and left bronchus Mediastinal space Lined w/ resp. epithelium Enter lung & continue to divide ○ AKA “bronchial tree”

22 Trachea & Bronchi

23 Respiratory System Bronchi  Trachea divides (bifurcates) into two primary bronchi  Secondary bronchi  Tertiary bronchi  Bronchioles

24 Lower Respiratory Tract  Bronchial Tree Trachea 2 primary bronchi Secondary branches Segemental/tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Alveolar ducts alveoli

25 Lower Respiratory Tract  Bronchioles Simple epithelium Lack cilia, goblet cells, & cartilage Contain smooth muscle bundles-regulate diameter of lumen Exchange of gases Divide into alveolar ducts w/ alveoli surrounding each duct = alveolar ducts

26 Pleural Cavity  Pleura = covers the outer surface of lungs and the lining of the inner surface of the rib cage  Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity  Visceral pleura covers the lungs  Contains: Lungs Pleural membranes ○ divided into parietal pleura and visceral pleura ○ Pleural space- space between parietal & visceral pleura, contains serous fluid,

27 Pleural Cavity  Lungs Spongy, elastic tissue Right-3 lobes Left-2 lobes Conical shape Layers- ○ External visceral pleura ○ Sub serous layer of areolar tissue ○ Parenchyma Blood supply ○ Arterial: bronchial arteries, branch from thoracic aorta

28 Lungs

29 Respiratory System Alveoli  Located at the end of the terminal bronchioles  Tiny sacs surrounded by vascular capillaries  Gas (O 2 and CO 2 ) occurs in the alveoli

30 Pleural Cavity  Alveoli Primary functioning unit Responsible for gas exchange  Alveolar walls Squamous epithelial cells-type 1 pneumocytes Each alveolus is surrounded by pulmonary capillaries ○ Consist of a single layer of endothelial cells ○ A thin, filmy layer of fluid that covers the alveoli to reduce surface tension forces and aid in the expansion of alveoli is called Pulmonary Surfactant

31 Alveoli

32 Cluster of Alveoli at the Terminal Bronchiole

33 Pleural Cavity  Alveolar-capillary barrier 3 layers ○ Between air in alveoli & blood in pulmonary capillaries  Pneumocytes Type 2 ○ round in shape ○ Contain large nucleus Lamellar bodies-contain phospholipids that release surfactant One alveolar sac is made up of numerous alveoli pg. 293 A&P

34 Microscopic View of Alveolar Sac

35 Pleural Cavity  Diaphragm Separates thoracic & abdominal cavity Divided into: ○ Crura ○ Central tendon Subdivided into 3 divisions-leaflets Major openings ○ Aortic ○ Esophageal ○ Inferior vena cava The diaphragm muscle flattens out when it contracts during inspiration The diaphragm muscle returns to upward position during expiration

36 Pleural Cavity  Diaphragm Blood supply ○ Branches of internal thoracic arteries Thoracic aorta Inferior phrenic arteries Lymph nodes ○ Located on superior surface ○ Receive drainage from liver & esophagogastric junction

37 Pleural Cavity  Intercostal muscles Located between ribs Divided: ○ External intercostal muscles covered by intercostal fascia Intercostal nerves innervate muscles ○ Primary structures responsible for movement during respiration.

38 Physiology of Respiration  Inhalation Diaphragm contract Intercostal muscles relax  Exhalation Diaphragm relaxes Intercostal muscles contract

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40 Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits  Pulmonary circuit From the heart to the lungs and back to the heart  Systemic circuit From the heart to the tissues and back to the heart

41 External Respiration  O2 diffuses from alveoli into blood  CO2 diffuses from blood to alveoli  Blood high in O2 returns to heart, pumped out by left ventricle through the aorta to the body Exchange of gasses between the blood and the lungs by diffusion

42 Internal Respiration  O2 diffuses from blood to body cells  CO2 diffuses from body cells to blood  Venous blood is low in O2 returns to right ventricle to lungs for reoxygenation.

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44 Regulation of Respiratory System  Nervous system Medulla ○ Responsible for inspiration & expiration Pons ○ Regulates normal rhythm of breathing Centers -apneustic center -Pneumotaxic center

45 Regulation of Respiratory System  Nervous System Chemoreceptors ○ Located in medulla, aortic bodies & carotid bodies ○ Detect changes in pH & blood gas levels  Phrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm

46 Respiratory Monitors  Pulmonary volumes Tidal volume Minute ventilation Inspiratory reserve volume Expiratory reserve volume – amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the total volume Vital capacity – largest amount of air we can breathe out in one expiration Residual volume Total lung capacity Forced expiratory volume

47 Conditions  Pulmonary edema-abnormal accumulation of fluid in extravascular spaces or alveoli  Pneumothorax-abnormal accumulation of air between the parietal & visceral pleura  Pneumonia- acute infection of lungs  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)-chronic airway obstruction  Emphysema-abnormal, irreversible enlargement of the alveoli due to destruction of alveolar walls  Pleurisy-Inflammation of the pleura that causes pain when the membranes rub together

48 Empyema

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50 Rhinorrhea

51 Why is a tracheotomy done? - Gain access to airway before blockage - Create an open airway for breathing

52 Tracheotomy

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54 Thoracentesis

55 Pulmonary Lobectomy  Excision of one or more lobes  Performed to excise benign lesions, malignant and metastatic malignant lesions

56 Terms Bronchoscopy – TB – Pulmonary edema – Pharyngitis – Pertussis – COPD – Hyperventilation – Inspiration – Medulla – Inhalation – Respiratory arrest – Pneumothorax – Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome – Epyema – Rhinorrhea – Thoracentesis – Pneumonia – Emphysemia -


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