Presentation on theme: "ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland"— Presentation transcript:
1ST120 Concorde Career College, Portland Respiratory System
2Objectives Define the term respiration. Describe the functions of the respiratory system.
3ObjectivesList and identify the structures of the respiratory system and describe the function of each.
4Objectives Describe the process of respiration. Describe the mechanism by which the respiratory system helps to maintain homeostasis.
5ObjectivesDescribe common diseases, disorders, and conditions of the respiratory system including signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and available treatment options.Demonstrate knowledge of medical terminology related to the respiratory system verbally and in the written form.
6Respiration More than breathing in and out. Process by which oxygen is obtained from the environment, delivered to the cells, and waste products such as carbon dioxide are removed from the body.
7TermsRespiration- Inhaling and exhaling facilitate the process of taking in oxygen and getting rid of waste CO2.Internal respiration- exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and body cells.External respiration- exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the circulatory system.Cellular respiration- the use of O2 by the cells of the body & production of CO2.Ventilation- movement of air in & out of the lungs (breathing)
8Functions of the Respiratory System Pulmonary ventilationInhalationExhalationDiffusion of gasesInto and out of the bloodTransport to and from the cells (cellular respiration)OxygenCarbon dioxide
9Primary Structures of the Respiratory System Nasal cavitiesPharynxLarynxTracheaLungsDiaphragm
10Upper Respiratory Tract Nose-Covered by skin and supported by bone and cartilage. Air enters through the external nares and coarse hairs line the internal part of the nares to act as filters.Nasal CavitiesSeparated by nasal septum. Lining is made of ciliated epithelium (nasal mucosa). Highly vascularized, which warms inhaled air.Nasal conchaeCurved scroll-like bonesSuperior, middle, and inferior turbinates
16Upper Respiratory Tract PharynxTubular structurePosterior to oral & nasal cavitiesConducts air and foodThree sections:NasopharynxOropharynxLaryngopharynxComposed of muscle, lined with mucous membrane
18Lower Respiratory Tract Larynx“voice box” contains vocal cords (2 short fibrous bands that stretch across the interior of the larynx)The space between the vocal cords is called the glottisConnects pharynx to tracheaServes as part of the air passagewayLined with mucous membraneComposed of cartilaginous rings:ThyroidAdam’s apple = thyroid cartilageCricoidSellick’s maneuver
19Lower Respiratory Tract LarynxDuring swallowing, larynx elevates & epiglottis closes over opening to prevent food from enteringVocal cords-located on either side of glottisBreathing- cords close over glottis.Speaking- cords are stretched & exhaled air vibrates cords causing speech.
21Lower Respiratory Tract Trachea“wind pipe”Extends from layrnx to carinaComposed of 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.Flexible, keep trachea continuously open.Primary bronchi = right and left bronchusMediastinal spaceLined w/ resp. epitheliumEnter lung & continue to divideAKA “bronchial tree”
25Lower Respiratory Tract BronchiolesSimple epitheliumLack cilia, goblet cells, & cartilageContain smooth muscle bundles-regulate diameter of lumenExchange of gasesDivide into alveolar ducts w/ alveoli surrounding each duct = alveolar ducts
26Pleural CavityPleura = covers the outer surface of lungs and the lining of the inner surface of the rib cageParietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavityVisceral pleura covers the lungsContains:LungsPleural membranesdivided into parietal pleura and visceral pleuraPleural space- space between parietal & visceral pleura, contains serous fluid,
29Respiratory System Alveoli Located at the end of the terminal bronchiolesTiny sacs surrounded by vascular capillariesGas (O2 and CO2) occurs in the alveoli
30Pleural Cavity Alveoli Alveolar walls Primary functioning unit Responsible for gas exchangeAlveolar wallsSquamous epithelial cells-type 1 pneumocytesEach alveolus is surrounded by pulmonary capillariesConsist of a single layer of endothelial cellsA thin, filmy layer of fluid that covers the alveoli to reduce surface tension forces and aid in the expansion of alveoli is called Pulmonary Surfactant
33Pleural Cavity Alveolar-capillary barrier Pneumocytes 3 layers Type 2 Between air in alveoli & blood in pulmonary capillariesPneumocytesType 2round in shapeContainlarge nucleusLamellar bodies-contain phospholipids that release surfactantOne alveolar sac is made up of numerous alveoli pg. 293 A&P
35Pleural Cavity Diaphragm Separates thoracic & abdominal cavity Divided into:CruraCentral tendonSubdivided into 3 divisions-leafletsMajor openingsAorticEsophagealInferior vena cavaThe diaphragm muscle flattens out when it contracts during inspirationThe diaphragm muscle returns to upward position during expiration
36Pleural Cavity Diaphragm Blood supply Lymph nodes Branches of internal thoracic arteriesThoracic aortaInferior phrenic arteriesLymph nodesLocated on superior surfaceReceive drainage from liver & esophagogastric junction
37Pleural Cavity Intercostal muscles Located between ribs Divided: External intercostal muscles covered by intercostal fasciaIntercostal nerves innervate musclesPrimary structures responsible for movement during respiration.
38Physiology of Respiration InhalationDiaphragm contractIntercostal muscles relaxExhalationDiaphragm relaxesIntercostal muscles contract
40Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits Pulmonary circuitFrom the heart to the lungs and back to the heartSystemic circuitFrom the heart to the tissues and back to the heart
41External Respiration O2 diffuses from alveoli into blood CO2 diffuses from blood to alveoliBlood high in O2 returns to heart, pumped out by left ventricle through the aorta to the bodyExchange of gasses between the blood and the lungs by diffusion
42Internal Respiration O2 diffuses from blood to body cells CO2 diffuses from body cells to bloodVenous blood is low in O2 returns to right ventricle to lungs for reoxygenation.
44Regulation of Respiratory System Nervous systemMedullaResponsible for inspiration & expirationPonsRegulates normal rhythm of breathingCentersapneustic centerPneumotaxic center
45Regulation of Respiratory System Nervous SystemChemoreceptorsLocated in medulla, aortic bodies & carotid bodiesDetect changes in pH & blood gas levelsPhrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm
46Respiratory Monitors Pulmonary volumes Tidal volume Minute ventilation Inspiratory reserve volumeExpiratory reserve volume – amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the total volumeVital capacity – largest amount of air we can breathe out in one expirationResidual volumeTotal lung capacityForced expiratory volume
47ConditionsPulmonary edema-abnormal accumulation of fluid in extravascular spaces or alveoliPneumothorax-abnormal accumulation of air between the parietal & visceral pleuraPneumonia- acute infection of lungsChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)-chronic airway obstructionEmphysema-abnormal, irreversible enlargement of the alveoli due to destruction of alveolar wallsPleurisy-Inflammation of the pleura that causes pain when the membranes rub together