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Respiration The respiratory system is a series of tubes that brings oxygen into the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiration The respiratory system is a series of tubes that brings oxygen into the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiration The respiratory system is a series of tubes that brings oxygen into the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

2 Compare inhaled and exhaled air. What is the trend? 5 %~ 1 %16 %78 %EXHALED 0.03 %~ 1 %21 %78 %INHALED CO 2 ArO2O2 N2N2 GAS

3 Breathing (Ventilation) ‏ Inhalation ▫The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. ▫The chest cavity enlarges. ▫The pressure in the lungs decreases. ▫(Bolye’s Law) ↑ volume = ↓ pressure ▫Air rushes into the lungs. Exhalation ▫The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax. ▫The chest cavity decreases in size. ▫The pressure in the lungs increases. ▫(Bolye’s Law) ↓ volume = ↑ pressure ▫Air rushes out of the lungs.

4 The diaphragm is a curved sheet of smooth muscle which separates the thorax from the abdomen. When it contracts, the diaphragm flattens, which INCREASES the volume of the THORAX, which then EXPANDS the lungs. Contracting the diaphragm therefore is associated with breathing IN, NOT OUT.

5 tracheabronchus (2)‏ bronchiole (thousands)‏ Diagram:

6 6 12 nostril mouth larynx lung bronchus nasal cavity pharynx trachea bronchus bronchiole alveoli diaphragm

7 What pathway does air follow as you inhale? nasal cavity or mouth pharynx (throat)‏ larynx and vocal cords trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli

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9 What pathway does air follow as you exhale? nasal cavity or mouth pharynx (throat)‏ larynx and vocal cords trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli

10 Air Processing Blood vessels in your nasal cavity and respiratory passages warm the air. Hairs in your nose trap dust and debris. Mucous in your nasal cavity and respiratory passages trap dust and germs. Cilia in your respiratory passages sweep mucous up out of lungs.

11 Gas Exchange In the alveoli, oxygen diffuses into blood vessels and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood vessels into the alveoli.

12 Constriction/tightening of the airways causing less air to flow into the lungs Cells in the airways might make more mucus than usual. Asthma

13 Wednesday, April 10, 2013 Triggered by allergens such as…..exercise, strong odours, strong emotion, weather…… Corrected by brochodiators (puffer) which are medications that open up the airways…..

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15 Asthma

16 Pneumonia Pneumonia is the inflammation of the alveoli. Infection from viruses, bacteria or inhaled irritants (cigarette smoke) causes the alveoli to become inflamed and filled with mucus which makes it difficult to breath. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, cough, wheezing chest pain and fatigue.

17 Wednesday, April 10, 2013 Viruses, bacteria or inhaled irritants infect the epithelium of the bronchi, resulting in inflammation and increased secretion of mucus. Bronchitis

18 Wednesday, April 10, 2013

19 Viruses, bacteria or inhaled irritants infect the epithelium of the bronchioles, resulting in inflammation and increased secretion of mucus. Bronchiolitis

20 Wednesday, April 10, 2013

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24 Circulation The circulatory system distributes nutrients and oxygen to all of the body’s cells, removes waste from cells, and regulates the body’s temperature.

25 Blood Blood is composed of cells and plasma. Plasma is the liquid component of blood in which blood cells are suspended.

26 Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body’s cells, and carbon dioxide from the body’s cells to the lungs.

27 Hemoglobin is complex protein found in red blood cells that contains an iron molecule. The main function of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues, and to exchange the oxygen for carbon dioxide.

28 An antibody, a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, called an antigen. Antibodies recognize and latch onto antigens and mark them to be removed from the body. Blood Types universal acceptor universal donor

29 White blood cells fight infections.

30 Platelets allow the blood to clot when blood vessels are broken.

31 Blood Vessels Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood towards the heart.

32 As your heart pumps blood through your body, you can feel a pulsing in some of the blood vessels close to the skin's surface, such as in your wrist, neck, or upper arm. Pulse Points on the Body

33 Wednesday, April 10, 2013 Counting your pulse rate is a simple way to find out how fast your heart is beating.

34 Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels. Their walls are only one cell thick. Capillaries supply oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body, and remove carbon dioxide and wastes.

35 Wednesday, April 10, 2013

36 The Heart The heart has 4 chambers: The right chambers receive deoxygenated blood from the body and pump it to the lungs. The left chambers receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and pump it to the body.

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42 Heart Attack A heart attack occurs when one or more of the arteries supplying your heart with oxygen-rich blood (coronary arteries) become blocked.

43 Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a condition in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. If this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs.

44 A sudden cardiac arrest victim's chance of survival decreases 10% with each passing minute after collapse. Therefore, the chance of survival is 0% after 10 minutes.

45 Nowadays schools, places of worships, gyms, museums, concert halls, etc... have defibrillators available in case of a cardiac emergency.by choice. Defibrillators


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