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Circulatory System & Respiration System

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1 Circulatory System & Respiration System
By: Jordan Monfort, April Quijano & Christopher Siess

2 Circulatory System Circulatory system is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body. It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to your billions of body cells and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. It is an amazing highway that travels through your entire body connecting all your body cells. The Circulatory System is divided into three major parts: The Heart The Blood The Blood Vessels

3 The Heart The heart is located roughly in the center of the chest cavity. It is covered by a protective membrane, the pericardium. It's job is to pump your blood and keep the blood moving throughout your body. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium of the heart through the superior vena cava. The right atrium contracts and pushes the blood cells through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle then contracts and pushes the blood through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery, which brings it to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood cells exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen. This oxygenated blood returns to the heart by way of the pulmonary vein and enters the left atrium. The left atrium contracts and pumps the blood through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Then, the left ventricle contracts and pushes the blood into the aorta. The aorta branches off into several different arteries that pump the oxygenated blood to various parts of the body.

4 The Blood The heart pumps blood which is consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma Red Blood Cells - Red Blood Cells are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red Blood Cells pick up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body cells. After delivering the oxygen to the cells it gathers up the carbon dioxide and transports carbon dioxide back to the lungs where it is removed from the body when we exhale White Blood Cells - White Blood Cells help the body fight off germs. White Blood Cells attack and destroy germs when they enter the body. When you have an infection your body will produce more White Blood Cells to help fight an infection. Platelets are blood cells that help stop bleeding Platelets - the platelets start to stick to the opening of the damaged blood vessels. As the platelets stick to the opening of the damaged vessel they attract more platelets, fibers and other blood cells to help form a plug to seal the broken blood vessel. When the platelet plug is completely formed the wound stops bleeding Plasma - Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. Approximately half of your blood is made of plasma. The plasma carries the blood cells and other components throughout the body. Plasma is made in the liver.

5 The Blood Vessels The blood is pump through tubes known as blood vessels. There are three types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins Arteries - Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart. It has three layers of thick walls. Veins - Veins carry blood back toward your heart. Capillaries - Capillaries are tiny blood vessels as thin or thinner than the hairs on your head. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Food substances, oxygen and wastes pass in and out of your blood through the capillary walls.

6 Respiration System The main purpose is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm are used in Respiration. Nose and Mouth - Oxygen enters the respiratory system. Trachea - is a tube that enters the chest cavity. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. Lungs - The bronchial tubes lead directly into the lungs where they divide into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli. Diaphragm - help pump the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull the oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that lies across the bottom of the chest cavity. As the diaphragm contracts and relaxes, breathing takes place. When the diaphragm contracts, oxygen is pulled into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs.

7 Feedback Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment. Homeostasis is a term coined in 1959 to describe the physical and chemical parameters that an organism must maintain to allow proper functioning of its component cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. For example, when a person is exercising the body needs more oxygen as an result the heart beats faster and the person breathes faster and harder in order to meet the body oxygen demands. Classic negative feedback If there is drop in Red Blood Cell (RBC) count causes hypoxemia to kidneys Erythropoietin production increases stimulation of bone marrow RBC count increases in 3-4 days Classic Positive feedback - The plugging or sealing of damaged vessels by the platelets

8 Circulatory and Respiratory System Activity 1: Circulation
Now, that you know the importance of the circulatory and respiratory system, do these three activities on the circulatory and respiratory system! Circulatory and Respiratory System Activity 1: Circulation

9 Situation: A single working mother of 4 has mysteriously gotten ill. So thinking it is a minor common cold or flu, she takes the day off to go see her doctor. Her doctor can not figure out what is the cause of her ill so she is sent home for some rest. However, later that night, she is awaken to the fact that she is spiting a large quantity of blood. Highly alarm she is take to your hospital. While testing her blood it was realized that her blood platelet levels are low.

10 Task: You are the world leading diagnostician and you have been presented with one of your toughest class ever. Find what disease is making her sick. What is the primary treatment for her disease? Use these links to help you find what you are looking for:

11 What would be your next step into curing this disease ? Hint:
Your not out of the woods yet. SUDDENLY!!! Your patient is having an allergic reaction to your primary treatment. What would be your next step into curing this disease ? Hint: It is a commonly used on patients with this dangerously 20th century disease. About 1.2 million people get diagnosed with this disease a year.

12 Circulatory and Respiratory System Activity 2: Respiration
Now, Its time to work on the Respiratory System Circulatory and Respiratory System Activity 2: Respiration

13 As you know, the lungs of the human respiratory system takes in oxygen from the area surrounding us and takes out carbon dioxide from our bodies. This process is something called gas exchange. People mostly think our lungs only work in air, but it doesn’t seem to be the case!

14 In an anime called Neon Genesis Evangelion, mech pilots have to breathe in liquid in the cockpit. This is similar to some process called Liquid breathing.

15 Your mission is, by these three links I’ve given you, found out all about what the process is in real life!: Liquid Beathing Page from Bristol University's School of Chemistry Liquid Breathing page from BSAC Article at

16 Cardiovascular & Respiratory Activity 3: Circulation & Respiration
Now, Let put all your detective work together!!!!!! Cardiovascular & Respiratory Activity 3: Circulation & Respiration

17 Situation- You are a doctor at a free clinic. A man is brought in late at night With a bullet wound in his chest, Below the right nipple and above the diaphragm. There is no exit wound. You suspect that the bullet punctured the lung and is still in the body. Tasks - What steps do you take? Using these links to help your complete your tasks good luck:

18 References Anatomy of the Human Circulatory System. Circulatory System. April 30, 2008 from Blood Circulation. Circulator System. April 30, 2008 from Body Systems. The Human Heart. April 30, 2008 from Circulation System. Hillendale Health Curriculum. April 30, 2008 from Homeostasis. Animal Organ Systems. April 30, 2008 from Review 2. Biology 112. April 30, 2008 from

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